Довідка:МФА/Португальська

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Розрізняють два основні стандарти мови — португальський (європейська португальська, ЄП; загальний стандарт, що використовується також в Африці та Азії) та бразильський (бразильська португальська, БП). Жоден з варіантів не є кращим у Вікіпедії, за винятком випадків, коли місцева вимова є більш доречною. Наприклад, місце в Бразилії або особа з Португалії.

На діаграмах нижче показано, як Міжнародний фонетичний алфавіт (МФА) представляє вимову португальської мови.

Приголосні
МФА Приклади Українська
Португалія
ЄП
Бразилія
БП
b b beiço, âmbar, sob береза
β cabeça, sobre[1] ЄП: вода
БП: береза
ð d cedo, idade[1] ЄП: англ. the
БП: день
d dedo, lenda день
digo, ande, balde[2] ЄП: день
БП: джерело
f fado, café форма
ɡ ɡ gato, signo, bingo, guerra ґрунт
ɣ fogo, figueira[1] ЄП: їх до
БП: ґрунт
k cor, dica, quente, kiwi корінь
l lua, alô лебідь
ɫ w mal[3] ЄП: стіл
БП: любов
ʎ lhe, velho[4] джміль
m mês, somo море
n não, sono небо
ɲ nhoque, sonho опеньки
p pó, sopa, apto парубок
ʁ ʁ rio, carro, enrascado,[5][6] lingerie фр. rouge
ɾ r, porto, por favor[5][6][7] ЄП: міра
БП: фр. rouge
ɾ frio, caro, por acaso[6][7] міра
s s saco, isso, braço, máximo сало
ʃ escola, as portas, dez, texto[8] ЄП: шахрай
БП: сало
ʃ chave, achar, xarope, baixo, sushi шахрай
tchau, atchim черепаха
t tipo, ritmo, ponte[2] ЄП: тарілка
БП: черепаха
t tempo, átomo тарілка
v vela, livro вино
ʒ ʒ já, gente жупан
z rasgo, os meus[8] ЄП: жупан
БП: золото
z casa, os amigos, doze, existir золото
 
Напівголосні[9]
МФА Приклади Українська
Португалія
ЄП
Бразилія
БП
j saia, pais байка
w frequente, quão, mau, Cauã любов
Наголошені голосні
МФА Приклади Українська
Португалія
ЄП
Бразилія
БП
a a alzheimer, Jaime,[10] dá, lámen, àquele хмара
ɐ falámos, falamos,[11] andaime[10] ЄП: хмара
БП:
ɐ falamos, câmera, bug
ɛ ɛ meta, sé, Émerson,[12] cafezinho дерево
e prémio, prêmio ЄП: дерево
БП:
e meto, sê[13]
i si, dia, país, suíço, rainha,[14] diesel тіло
ɔ ɔ formosa, formosos, avó, somente корова
o Antônio, António ЄП: корова
БП:
o avô, formoso
u rua, lúcido, saúde цибуля
Ненаголошені голосні
ɐ ɐ taça, manhã[15] хмара
a maior, aquele, da ЄП: хмара
БП: Мамай
a Camões, caveira Мамай
ɛ e incrível, segmento[12] ЄП: море
БП: дерево
ɨ semáforo ЄП: сутулий
БП: дерево
i jure, pequeno,[16] se ЄП: сутулий
БП: зелений
i júri, meandro, e, doe[17] синій
ɔ o hospital[12] ЄП: небо
БП: корова
u sortudo ЄП: небу
БП: корова
u evacuar, boneco,[16] vi-o, voo, frio[17] глухий
 
Просодія
Наголос та склад
МФА Приклади Пояснення
Португалія
ЄП
Бразилія
БП
ˈ João [ʒuˈɐ̃w] (ЄП, БП) первинний наголос
ˌ Vila-Chã [ˌvilɐˈʃɐ̃] (ЄП, БП) вторинний наголос
. Rio [ˈʁi.u] (ЄП, БП) складовий поділ
Діакритичні знаки
◌̃ Chã [ˈʃɐ̃] (ЄП, БП)[18] носовий голосний
◌̥ глухий голосний
Інше
( ) Douro [ˈdo(w)ɾu] (ЄП, БП) додатковий звук

Див. також[ред. | ред. код]

Примітки[ред. | ред. код]

  1. а б в In northern and central Portugal, β, d, and ɡ are lenited to fricatives of the same place of articulation (β, ð, and ɣ, respectively) in all places except after a pause or a nasal vowel, when they are stops b, d, ɡ], not dissimilar from English b, d, g. Most often, it occurs only in southern and insular Portugal and in Brazil in some unstressed syllables, generally in relaxed speech, but that is by no means universal.
  2. а б In most varieties of Brazilian Portuguese, /d, t/ are palatalized and affricated to post-alveolar before high front vowels /i, ĩ/ except for certain dialects of Northeast Region, Brazil, such as Central northeastern Portuguese /d, t/ are more often pronounced as alveolar or dental before high front vowels (/i, ĩ/). Furthermore, the full palatalization of /d, t/ in all positions before /i, ĩ/ (including in most loanwords) is truly complete only in the state of Rio de Janeiro.
  3. Final /l/ is velarized in European Portuguese and along the Brazilian-Uruguayan border.
  4. /ʎ/ has merged with j in some dialects of Brazilian Portuguese, such as the Caipira dialect.
  5. а б The rhotic consonant represented as /ʁ/ has considerable variation across different variants, being pronounced as x, h, χ, ɦ, ʀ, r etc. See also Guttural R in Portuguese.
  6. а б в The rhotic consonants /ɾ/ ⟨r⟩ and /ʁ/ ⟨rr⟩ contrast only between vowels. Otherwise, they are in complementary distribution as ⟨r⟩, with /ʁ/ occurring word-initially, after ⟨l⟩, ⟨n⟩, and ⟨s⟩ and in compounds; /ɾ/ is found elsewhere.
  7. а б The realization of syllable-final ⟨r⟩ varies by dialect but is generally pronounced as an alveolar tap ɾ in European Portuguese and some Brazilian dialects (e.g. Rio Grande do Sul state and São Paulo city), as a coronal approximant (ɹ or ɻ) in various other Brazilian dialects, and as a guttural R in all others (such as the city of Rio de Janeiro and almost all the Northeast). In some Brazilian Portuguese dialects, word-final ⟨r⟩ may also be completely elided in infinitives; e.g. ficar [fiˈka] (no ⟨r⟩ is pronounced as a tap [ɾ] only if it is followed by a vowel sound in the same phrase or prosodic unit: ficar ao léu [fiˈkaɾ aw ˈlɛw]). That is very similar to the linking R used in some accents of English, such as Received Pronunciation or Australian English.
  8. а б Mostly in Brazil, the fricatives /s/ and /z/ are not palatalized between syllables or coda positions, but there is a strong palatalization of them in some dialects, such as fluminense, northern, recifense, soteropolitan and florianopolitan (coda /s/ merges with /ʃ/ and /z/ merges with /ʒ/). In the carioca dialect (southern coast of the state Rio de Janeiro, including all of [[Greater Rio de Janeiro, coda sibilants are almost always palatalized ([ʃ, ʒ]), but in most dialects of the northeast region of Brazil, palatalization of fricatives occurs only before stop or affricate consonants (/d, t, dʒ, tʃ/), such in as the word texto [ˈteʃtu].
  9. Intervocalic glides are ambisyllabic, they are part of previous falling diphthongs and they are geminated to next syllable onset. Examples of such pronunciations are goiaba [ɡojˈjabɐ] and Cauã for [kawˈwɐ̃].
  10. а б Most Brazilian dialects have closed ⟨a⟩ for stressed sequences ⟨ai⟩ before /m/ and /n/. In many dialects it is also nasalized. Many speakers of those dialects, including broadcast media, use open ⟨a⟩ for some words like Jaime and Roraima.
  11. First-person plural past tense in European Portuguese has open ⟨a⟩, and present tense has closed ⟨a⟩. Both conjugated with closed ⟨a⟩ in Brazilian Portuguese
  12. а б в The "northern dialects" (restricted to North and Northeast Brazil) do not follow the Standard Brazilian Portuguese pronunciation in terms of unstressed vocalism. The standard pronunciations of those vowels are always closed /e, o/, as in "perereca" [peɾeˈɾɛkɐ] and "horário" [oˈɾaɾju], but in those dialects, they are open vowels /ɛ, ɔ/, and the those words are pronounced [pɛɾɛˈɾɛkɐ] and [ɔˈɾaɾju]. That is also true to but to a lesser extent for most speakers from the state of Rio de Janeiro and from the Federal District, as local dialects are also greatly affected by vowel harmony, and the same is true for many speakers from Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso, Goiás, and Espírito Santo. In many cases, the distinction between /ɛ, e/ and /ɔ, o/ are unclear, with a tendency for neutralization to [e̞, o̞] (that happens in almost all of Brazil). Brazilian Portuguese /ẽ, õ/ can also vary between close-mid, mid, and open-mid positions, depending on the dialect, thr speaker, and the word.
  13. In the dialect of Lisbon, /e/ merges with /ɐ/ when it comes before palatal sounds (e.g. abelha, venho, jeito).
  14. There is no diphthong before palatal consonant, so hiatuses are not indicated before /ɲ/ (e.g. rainha /ʁaˈiɲɐ/).
  15. In Brazilian Portuguese, pre-stressed close ⟨a⟩ is obligatory only before /ɲ/ and has a tendency to be raised before other nasal consonants. In many dialects, nasalization is obligatory also before /ɲ/, Leo Wetzels proposes such nasalized dialects have phonemic palatal gemination (e.g. canhoto /kaɲˈɲotu/ [kɐ̃ˈɲotu]). See Consoantes palatais como geminadas fonológicas no Português Brasileiro*
  16. а б In words such as "perigo" [pɪˈɾiɡu] and "boneco" [bʊˈnɛku], for example, vowels ⟨e, o⟩ pre-stressed syllables may be pronounced, respectively, as [ɪ, ʊ] in some varieties of Brazilian Portuguese, instead of [i, u].
  17. а б Some of the post-stressed high vowels in hiatuses, as in frio ('cold') and rio ('river'), may vary between a reduced vowel [ˈfɾi.u] and a glide [ˈfɾiw], exceptions are verbal conjugations, forming pairs like eu rio [ˈew ˈʁi.u] (I laugh) and ele riu [ˈelɨ ˈʁiw] (he laughed).
  18. Nasal vowels in Portuguese are /ɐ̃/, /ẽ/, /ĩ/, /õ/ and /ũ/

Посилання[ред. | ред. код]