Модуль:Wd

Матеріал з Вікіпедії — вільної енциклопедії.
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This модуль is intended to fetch data from Wikidata with or without a link to the connected Wikipedia article.

The модуль is under development and is not yet complete. Of the available datatypes, it currently supports strings, quantities, monolingual text, time and globe coordinates.

Usage[ред. код]

{{Шаблон:Hashinvoke:wd|function|flag1|flag2|flag3|arg1|arg2|arg3}}

Functions[ред. код]

  • property
    Returns the requested property or list of properties from the given item.
  • qualifier
    Returns the requested qualifier or list of qualifiers from the given property of the given item.
  • propertyWithQualifier
    Returns the requested property and its requested qualifier or a list thereof from the given item, with the qualifier formatted between parentheses behind the property and with units of measurement if applicable.
  • label
    Returns the label of the given item or property.
  • main
    Intended for use by wrapper templates (around this module) to invoke one of the above functions, returning their respective output.

Parameters[ред. код]

Flags[ред. код]

  • linked
    Creates a link to the Wikipedia article that is connected to the property or qualifier if it exists.
    If this parameter is omitted, then the plain property or qualifier value will be returned.
  • unit
    Appends the unit of measurement to the value if applicable.
    For units, the linked flag behaves slightly different in that it links the unit of measurement where it would normally link the property or qualifier value.
    If this flag is used with time datatypes, then it makes the returned dates more verbose (e.g. 11 February 1731). Either way, dates in the Julian calendar stored with a precision of days through millenniums will have "Julian" attached to the output, where without the unit flag it will look like 1731-2-11/Julian (which may be split off using the {{#titleparts}} template function).
    If this flag is used with globe coordinate datatypes, then it adds the various symbols to the returned value (e.g. 52°5'3"N, 4°19'3"E). Without the unit flag, globe coordinates will look like 52/5/3/N/4/19/3/E (which may be split into parts using the {{#titleparts}} template function).
  • short (EXPENSIVE when used)
    Gets the short name (P1813) of any item returned if they have one attached. If that is not the case, then the default behaviour of returning the item label will occur.
  • single
    Returns only a single value instead of multiple (if multiple claims match). The returned value is the first match found from the best-ranked claims.
  • One of:
    best (default)
    preferred
    normal
    deprecated
    Sets a rank constraint for the selected claims.
    The latter three can be followed by a + or a -, e.g.normal+ or preferred-, where the first selects claims with a 'normal' rank or higher and the second selects claims with a 'preferred' rank or lower. To get claims of all ranks, use preferred- or deprecated+.
    Output is always sorted from highest rank to lowest (regardless of this flag being set).
  • One of:
    future
    current
    former
    Sets a time constraint for the selected claims. Uses the claims' qualifiers of start time (P580) and end time (P582) to determine if the claim is valid for the selected time period.

Arguments[ред. код]

  • property | [<flags>] | [<item_id>] | <property_id>
    • <flags> (optional)
      A list of flags (see above).
    • <item_id> (optional, EXPENSIVE when used)
      Q-identifier of the item to be accessed (e.g. Q55).
      If this parameter is omitted, then the item connected to the current page will be used.
    • <property_id>
      P-identifier of the property to be accessed (e.g. P38).


  • qualifier | [<flags>] | [<item_id>] | <property_id> | [<claim_id_or_value>] | <qualifier_id>
    • <flags> (optional)
      A list of flags (see above).
    • <item_id> (optional, EXPENSIVE when used)
      Q-identifier of the item to be accessed (e.g. Q55).
      If this parameter is omitted, then the item connected to the current page will be used.
    • <property_id>
      P-identifier of the property to be accessed (e.g. P38).
    • <claim_id_or_value> (optional)
      Either the Q-identifier of the particular claim to be accessed (e.g. Q6655) or a literal value (i.e. string or quantity etc., no item label) equal to the claim to be accessed.
      Dates as literal values must be formatted year-month-day (e.g. 1731-2-11) for dates with a precision of days, year-month (e.g. 1731-2) for dates with a precision of months, and year (e.g. 1731) for dates of lesser precision without any spaces or leading zeros. Dates BCE require a minus sign in front of the year (e.g. -2950-1-31). Dates stored in the Julian calendar must have /Julian attached to the end (e.g. 1731-2-11/Julian). Decades like the 2010s must be given as 2010 (but the 2010s BCE as -2019), centuries like the 20th century as 1901 (but the 20th century BCE as -2000), and millenniums like the 3rd millennium as 2001 (but the 3rd millennium BCE as -3000).
      Globe coordinates as literal values must be formatted with forward slashes (i.e. /) between the parts and no symbols (e.g. 52/5/3/N/4/19/3/E) without any spaces or leading zeros.
      The special type 'no value' can be given by entering the empty string (i.e. ||) and the special type 'unknown value' can be given by entering a space (i.e. ||).
      If this parameter is omitted, then all claims (matching any other constraints) within the property will be accessed.
    • <qualifier_id>
      P-identifier of the qualifier to be accessed (e.g. P518).


  • propertyWithQualifier | [<flags>] | [<item_id>] | <property_id> | [<claim_id_or_value>] | <qualifier_id>
    This function is equivalent to qualifier, except that the property is also returned with the qualifier between parentheses behind it. It also enables the unit flag (see above).


  • label | [<flags>] | [<item_or_property_id>]
    • <flags> (optional)
      A list of flags (see above).
    • <item_or_property_id> (optional)
      Q-identifier of the item (e.g. Q55) or P-identifier of the property (e.g. P38) to be accessed.
      If this parameter is omitted, then the item connected to the current page will be used.


  • main | <function> | [<parameters>]
    • <function>
      The name of one of the above functions.
    • <parameters> (optional)
      A list of flags and arguments applicable to the chosen function.

Examples[ред. код]

property[ред. код]

  • Q55 (Нідерланди), P395 (код на номерних знаках): [string]
{{Шаблон:Hashinvoke:wd|property|Q55|P395}} → NL


  • Q55 (Нідерланди), P1549 (катойконім): [monolingual text]
{{Шаблон:Hashinvoke:wd|property|Q55|P1549}} → голандець


property with rank[ред. код]

  • Q55 (Нідерланди), P38 (валюта): [item label]
best rank (default)
{{Шаблон:Hashinvoke:wd|property|Q55|P38}} → євро
{{Шаблон:Hashinvoke:wd|property|best|Q55|P38}} → євро
{{Шаблон:Hashinvoke:wd|property|best|linked|Q55|P38}}євро
other ranks
{{Шаблон:Hashinvoke:wd|property|preferred|Q55|P38}} → євро
{{Шаблон:Hashinvoke:wd|property|preferred-|linked|Q55|P38}}євро
{{Шаблон:Hashinvoke:wd|property|normal+|Q55|P38}} → євро
{{Шаблон:Hashinvoke:wd|property|normal|Q55|P38}} → Нідерландський гульден


property with time constraint[ред. код]

  • Q55 (Нідерланди), P38 (валюта): [item label]
{{Шаблон:Hashinvoke:wd|property|normal+|current|Q55|P38}} → євро
{{Шаблон:Hashinvoke:wd|property|normal+|former|Q55|P38}} → Нідерландський гульден


property with short name[ред. код]

  • Q55 (Нідерланди), P38 (валюта): [item label]
{{Шаблон:Hashinvoke:wd|property|normal|current|short|Q55|P38}} → Долар США
{{Шаблон:Hashinvoke:wd|property|normal|current|short|linked|Q55|P38}}Долар США


property with unit[ред. код]

  • Q55 (Нідерланди), P2884 (мережева напруга): [quantity]
{{Шаблон:Hashinvoke:wd|property|unit|Q55|P2884}} → вольт
{{Шаблон:Hashinvoke:wd|property|unit|linked|Q55|P2884}}вольт


property with return of globe coordinate[ред. код]

  • Q55 (Нідерланди), P625 (географічні координати): [globe coordinate]
{{Шаблон:Hashinvoke:wd|property|Q55|P625}} → 52°19'N, 5°33'E
{{Шаблон:Hashinvoke:wd|property|unit|Q55|P625}} → 52°19'N, 5°33'E
{{Шаблон:Hashinvoke:wd|property|unit|linked|Q55|P625}}52°19'N, 5°33'E


property with return of single value[ред. код]

  • Q55 (Нідерланди), P150 (адміністративно-територіально поділяється на): [item label]
{{Шаблон:Hashinvoke:wd|property|Q55|P150}} → Гронінген
{{Шаблон:Hashinvoke:wd|property|single|Q55|P150}} → Гронінген


qualifier[ред. код]

qualifier with rank[ред. код]

  • Q55 (Нідерланди), P38 (валюта), P518 (стосується частини): [item label]
best rank (default)
{{Шаблон:Hashinvoke:wd|qualifier|Q55|P38|P518}} → Нідерландські Карибські острови
{{Шаблон:Hashinvoke:wd|qualifier|best|Q55|P38|P518}} → Нідерландські Карибські острови
{{Шаблон:Hashinvoke:wd|qualifier|best|linked|Q55|P38|P518}}Нідерландські Карибські острови
other ranks
{{Шаблон:Hashinvoke:wd|qualifier|preferred|Q55|P38|P518}}
{{Шаблон:Hashinvoke:wd|qualifier|preferred-|linked|Q55|P38|P518}}Нідерландські Карибські острови
{{Шаблон:Hashinvoke:wd|qualifier|normal+|Q55|P38|P518}} → Нідерландські Карибські острови
{{Шаблон:Hashinvoke:wd|qualifier|normal|Q55|P38|P518}} → Нідерландські Карибські острови


qualifier with time constraint[ред. код]

  • Q55 (Нідерланди), P38 (валюта), P518 (стосується частини): [item label]
{{Шаблон:Hashinvoke:wd|qualifier|normal+|current|Q55|P38|P518}} → Нідерландські Карибські острови
{{Шаблон:Hashinvoke:wd|qualifier|normal+|former|Q55|P38|P518}}


qualifier with claim ID[ред. код]

  • Q55 (Нідерланди), P38 (валюта), Q4917 (Долар США), P518 (стосується частини): [item label]
{{Шаблон:Hashinvoke:wd|qualifier|Q55|P38|Q4917|P518}} → Нідерландські Карибські острови
{{Шаблон:Hashinvoke:wd|qualifier|linked|Q55|P38|Q4917|P518}}Нідерландські Карибські острови


qualifier with literal value[ред. код]

  • Q55 (Нідерланди), P2884 (мережева напруга), 230 volt, P2144 (частота): [quantity]
{{Шаблон:Hashinvoke:wd|qualifier|Q55|P2884|230|P2144}} → 50 герц


qualifier with unit[ред. код]

  • Q55 (Нідерланди), P2884 (мережева напруга), 230 volt, P2144 (частота): [quantity]
{{Шаблон:Hashinvoke:wd|qualifier|unit|Q55|P2884|230|P2144}} → герц
{{Шаблон:Hashinvoke:wd|qualifier|unit|linked|Q55|P2884|230|P2144}}герц


qualifier with return of time[ред. код]

  • Q55 (Нідерланди), P38 (валюта), Q788472 (Нідерландський гульден), P582 (час/дата закінчення): [time]
{{Шаблон:Hashinvoke:wd|qualifier|Q55|P38|Q788472|P582}} → 1 січень 2002
{{Шаблон:Hashinvoke:wd|qualifier|unit|Q55|P38|Q788472|P582}} → 1 січень 2002


propertyWithQualifier[ред. код]

  • Q55 (Нідерланди), P2884 (мережева напруга), P2144 (частота): [quantity]
{{Шаблон:Hashinvoke:wd|propertyWithQualifier|Q55|P2884|P2144}}Помилка скрипту: Функції «propertyWithQualifier» не існує.
{{Шаблон:Hashinvoke:wd|propertyWithQualifier|linked|Q55|P2884|P2144}}Помилка скрипту: Функції «propertyWithQualifier» не існує.


  • Q55 (Нідерланди), P38 (валюта), P518 (стосується частини): [item label]
{{Шаблон:Hashinvoke:wd|propertyWithQualifier|normal+|current|Q55|P38|P518}}Помилка скрипту: Функції «propertyWithQualifier» не існує.
{{Шаблон:Hashinvoke:wd|propertyWithQualifier|normal+|current|short|linked|Q55|P38|P518}}Помилка скрипту: Функції «propertyWithQualifier» не існує.


If the module is transcluded on the Netherlands page (which is linked to Q55), then the Q55 can be omitted:

  • P38 (валюта), P518 (стосується частини): [item label]
{{Шаблон:Hashinvoke:wd|propertyWithQualifier|normal+|current|P38|P518}}Помилка скрипту: Функції «propertyWithQualifier» не існує.


label[ред. код]

See also[ред. код]

  • {{Wikidata}}, a user-friendly wrapper template for this module.
-- Original module located at [[:en:Module:Wd]] and [[:en:Module:Wd/i18n]].

local p = {}
local arg = ...
local i18n

local function loadI18n(aliasesP, frame)
	local title

	if frame then
		-- current module invoked by page/template, get its title from frame
		title = frame:getTitle()
	else
		-- current module included by other module, get its title from ...
		title = arg
	end

	if not i18n then
		i18n = require(title .. "/i18n").init(aliasesP)
	end
end

p.claimCommands = {
	property   = "property",
	properties = "properties",
	qualifier  = "qualifier",
	qualifiers = "qualifiers",
	reference  = "reference",
	references = "references"
}

p.generalCommands = {
	label       = "label",
	title       = "title",
	description = "description",
	alias       = "alias",
	aliases     = "aliases",
	badge       = "badge",
	badges      = "badges"
}

p.flags = {
	linked        = "linked",
	short         = "short",
	raw           = "raw",
	multilanguage = "multilanguage",
	unit          = "unit",
	-------------
	preferred     = "preferred",
	normal        = "normal",
	deprecated    = "deprecated",
	best          = "best",
	future        = "future",
	current       = "current",
	former        = "former",
	edit          = "edit",
	editAtEnd     = "edit@end",
	mdy           = "mdy",
	single        = "single",
	sourced       = "sourced"
}

p.args = {
	eid  = "eid",
	page = "page",
	date = "date"
}

local aliasesP = {
	coord                   = "P625",
	-----------------------
	image                   = "P18",
	author                  = "P50",
	publisher               = "P123",
	importedFrom            = "P143",
	statedIn                = "P248",
	pages                   = "P304",
	language                = "P407",
	hasPart                 = "P527",
	publicationDate         = "P577",
	startTime               = "P580",
	endTime                 = "P582",
	chapter                 = "P792",
	retrieved               = "P813",
	referenceURL            = "P854",
	sectionVerseOrParagraph = "P958",
	archiveURL              = "P1065",
	title                   = "P1476",
	formatterURL            = "P1630",
	quote                   = "P1683",
	shortName               = "P1813",
	definingFormula         = "P2534",
	archiveDate             = "P2960",
	inferredFrom            = "P3452",
	typeOfReference         = "P3865",
	column                  = "P3903"
}

local aliasesQ = {
	percentage              = "Q11229",
	prolepticJulianCalendar = "Q1985786",
	citeWeb                 = "Q5637226",
	citeQ                   = "Q22321052"
}

local parameters = {
	property  = "%p",
	qualifier = "%q",
	reference = "%r",
	alias     = "%a",
	badge     = "%b",
	separator = "%s",
	general   = "%x"
}

local formats = {
	property              = "%p[%s][%r]",
	qualifier             = "%q[%s][%r]",
	reference             = "%r",
	propertyWithQualifier = "%p[ <span style=\"font-size:85\\%\">(%q)</span>][%s][%r]",
	alias                 = "%a[%s]",
	badge                 = "%b[%s]"
}

local hookNames = {              -- {level_1, level_2}
	[parameters.property]         = {"getProperty"},
	[parameters.reference]        = {"getReferences", "getReference"},
	[parameters.qualifier]        = {"getAllQualifiers"},
	[parameters.qualifier.."\\d"] = {"getQualifiers", "getQualifier"},
	[parameters.alias]            = {"getAlias"},
	[parameters.badge]            = {"getBadge"}
}

-- default value objects, should NOT be mutated but instead copied
local defaultSeparators = {
	["sep"]      = {" "},
	["sep%s"]    = {","},
	["sep%q"]    = {"; "},
	["sep%q\\d"] = {", "},
	["sep%r"]    = nil,  -- none
	["punc"]     = nil   -- none
}

local rankTable = {
	["preferred"]  = 1,
	["normal"]     = 2,
	["deprecated"] = 3
}

local Config = {}

-- allows for recursive calls
function Config:new()
	local cfg = {}
	setmetatable(cfg, self)
	self.__index = self

	cfg.separators = {
		-- single value objects wrapped in arrays so that we can pass by reference
		["sep"]   = {copyTable(defaultSeparators["sep"])},
		["sep%s"] = {copyTable(defaultSeparators["sep%s"])},
		["sep%q"] = {copyTable(defaultSeparators["sep%q"])},
		["sep%r"] = {copyTable(defaultSeparators["sep%r"])},
		["punc"]  = {copyTable(defaultSeparators["punc"])}
	}

	cfg.entity = nil
	cfg.entityID = nil
	cfg.propertyID = nil
	cfg.propertyValue = nil
	cfg.qualifierIDs = {}
	cfg.qualifierIDsAndValues = {}

	cfg.bestRank = true
	cfg.ranks = {true, true, false}  -- preferred = true, normal = true, deprecated = false
	cfg.foundRank = #cfg.ranks
	cfg.flagBest = false
	cfg.flagRank = false

	cfg.periods = {true, true, true}  -- future = true, current = true, former = true
	cfg.flagPeriod = false
	cfg.atDate = {parseDate(os.date('!%Y-%m-%d'))}  -- today as {year, month, day}

	cfg.mdyDate = false
	cfg.singleClaim = false
	cfg.sourcedOnly = false
	cfg.editable = false
	cfg.editAtEnd = false

	cfg.inSitelinks = false

	cfg.langCode = mw.language.getContentLanguage().code
	cfg.langName = mw.language.fetchLanguageName(cfg.langCode, cfg.langCode)
	cfg.langObj = mw.language.new(cfg.langCode)

	cfg.siteID = mw.wikibase.getGlobalSiteId()

	cfg.states = {}
	cfg.states.qualifiersCount = 0
	cfg.curState = nil

	cfg.prefetchedRefs = nil

	return cfg
end

local State = {}

function State:new(cfg, type)
	local stt = {}
	setmetatable(stt, self)
	self.__index = self

	stt.conf = cfg
	stt.type = type

	stt.results = {}

	stt.parsedFormat = {}
	stt.separator = {}
	stt.movSeparator = {}
	stt.puncMark = {}

	stt.linked = false
	stt.rawValue = false
	stt.shortName = false
	stt.anyLanguage = false
	stt.unitOnly = false
	stt.singleValue = false

	return stt
end

local function replaceAlias(id)
	if aliasesP[id] then
		id = aliasesP[id]
	end

	return id
end

local function errorText(code, param)
	local text = i18n["errors"][code]
	if param then text = mw.ustring.gsub(text, "$1", param) end
	return text
end

local function throwError(errorMessage, param)
	error(errorText(errorMessage, param))
end

local function replaceDecimalMark(num)
	return mw.ustring.gsub(num, "[.]", i18n['numeric']['decimal-mark'], 1)
end

local function padZeros(num, numDigits)
	local numZeros
	local negative = false

	if num < 0 then
		negative = true
		num = num * -1
	end

	num = tostring(num)
	numZeros = numDigits - num:len()

	for _ = 1, numZeros do
		num = "0"..num
	end

	if negative then
		num = "-"..num
	end

	return num
end

local function replaceSpecialChar(chr)
	if chr == '_' then
		-- replace underscores with spaces
		return ' '
	else
		return chr
	end
end

local function replaceSpecialChars(str)
	local chr
	local esc = false
	local strOut = ""

	for i = 1, #str do
		chr = str:sub(i,i)

		if not esc then
			if chr == '\\' then
				esc = true
			else
				strOut = strOut .. replaceSpecialChar(chr)
			end
		else
			strOut = strOut .. chr
			esc = false
		end
	end

	return strOut
end

local function buildWikilink(target, label)
	if not label or target == label then
		return "[[" .. target .. "]]"
	else
		return "[[" .. target .. "|" .. label .. "]]"
	end
end

-- used to make frame.args mutable, to replace #frame.args (which is always 0)
-- with the actual amount and to simply copy tables
function copyTable(tIn)
	if not tIn then
		return nil
	end

	local tOut = {}

	for i, v in pairs(tIn) do
		tOut[i] = v
	end

	return tOut
end

-- used to merge output arrays together;
-- note that it currently mutates the first input array
local function mergeArrays(a1, a2)
	for i = 1, #a2 do
		a1[#a1 + 1] = a2[i]
	end

	return a1
end

local function split(str, del)
	local out = {}
	local i, j = str:find(del)

	if i and j then
		out[1] = str:sub(1, i - 1)
		out[2] = str:sub(j + 1)
	else
		out[1] = str
	end

	return out
end

local function parseWikidataURL(url)
	local id

	if url:match('^http[s]?://') then
		id = split(url, "Q")

		if id[2] then
			return "Q" .. id[2]
		end
	end

	return nil
end

function parseDate(dateStr, precision)
	precision = precision or "d"

	local i, j, index, ptr
	local parts = {nil, nil, nil}

	if dateStr == nil then
		return parts[1], parts[2], parts[3]  -- year, month, day
	end

	-- 'T' for snak values, '/' for outputs with '/Julian' attached
	i, j = dateStr:find("[T/]")

	if i then
		dateStr = dateStr:sub(1, i-1)
	end

	local from = 1

	if dateStr:sub(1,1) == "-" then
		-- this is a negative number, look further ahead
		from = 2
	end

	index = 1
	ptr = 1

	i, j = dateStr:find("-", from)

	if i then
		-- year
		parts[index] = tonumber(mw.ustring.gsub(dateStr:sub(ptr, i-1), "^\+(.+)$", "%1"), 10)  -- remove '+' sign (explicitly give base 10 to prevent error)

		if parts[index] == -0 then
			parts[index] = tonumber("0")  -- for some reason, 'parts[index] = 0' may actually store '-0', so parse from string instead
		end

		if precision == "y" then
			-- we're done
			return parts[1], parts[2], parts[3]  -- year, month, day
		end

		index = index + 1
		ptr = i + 1

		i, j = dateStr:find("-", ptr)

		if i then
			-- month
			parts[index] = tonumber(dateStr:sub(ptr, i-1), 10)

			if precision == "m" then
				-- we're done
				return parts[1], parts[2], parts[3]  -- year, month, day
			end

			index = index + 1
			ptr = i + 1
		end
	end

	if dateStr:sub(ptr) ~= "" then
		-- day if we have month, month if we have year, or year
		parts[index] = tonumber(dateStr:sub(ptr), 10)
	end

	return parts[1], parts[2], parts[3]  -- year, month, day
end

local function datePrecedesDate(aY, aM, aD, bY, bM, bD)
	if aY == nil or bY == nil then
		return nil
	end
	aM = aM or 1
	aD = aD or 1
	bM = bM or 1
	bD = bD or 1

	if aY < bY then
		return true
	end

	if aY > bY then
		return false
	end

	if aM < bM then
		return true
	end

	if aM > bM then
		return false
	end

	if aD < bD then
		return true
	end

	return false
end

local function getHookName(param, index)
	if hookNames[param] then
		return hookNames[param][index]
	elseif param:len() > 2 then
		return hookNames[param:sub(1, 2).."\\d"][index]
	else
		return nil
	end
end

local function alwaysTrue()
	return true
end

-- The following function parses a format string.
--
-- The example below shows how a parsed string is structured in memory.
-- Variables other than 'str' and 'child' are left out for clarity's sake.
--
-- Example:
-- "A %p B [%s[%q1]] C [%r] D"
--
-- Structure:
-- [
--   {
--     str = "A "
--   },
--   {
--     str = "%p"
--   },
--   {
--     str = " B ",
--     child =
--     [
--       {
--         str = "%s",
--         child =
--         [
--           {
--             str = "%q1"
--           }
--         ]
--       }
--     ]
--   },
--   {
--     str = " C ",
--     child =
--     [
--       {
--         str = "%r"
--       }
--     ]
--   },
--   {
--     str = " D"
--   }
-- ]
--
local function parseFormat(str)
	local chr, esc, param, root, cur, prev, new
	local params = {}

	local function newObject(array)
		local obj = {}  -- new object
		obj.str = ""

		array[#array + 1] = obj  -- array{object}
		obj.parent = array

		return obj
	end

	local function endParam()
		if param > 0 then
			if cur.str ~= "" then
				cur.str = "%"..cur.str
				cur.param = true
				params[cur.str] = true
				cur.parent.req[cur.str] = true
				prev = cur
				cur = newObject(cur.parent)
			end
			param = 0
		end
	end

	root = {}  -- array
	root.req = {}
	cur = newObject(root)
	prev = nil

	esc = false
	param = 0

	for i = 1, #str do
		chr = str:sub(i,i)

		if not esc then
			if chr == '\\' then
				endParam()
				esc = true
			elseif chr == '%' then
				endParam()
				if cur.str ~= "" then
					cur = newObject(cur.parent)
				end
				param = 2
			elseif chr == '[' then
				endParam()
				if prev and cur.str == "" then
					table.remove(cur.parent)
					cur = prev
				end
				cur.child = {}  -- new array
				cur.child.req = {}
				cur.child.parent = cur
				cur = newObject(cur.child)
			elseif chr == ']' then
				endParam()
				if cur.parent.parent then
					new = newObject(cur.parent.parent.parent)
					if cur.str == "" then
						table.remove(cur.parent)
					end
					cur = new
				end
			else
				if param > 1 then
					param = param - 1
				elseif param == 1 then
					if not chr:match('%d') then
						endParam()
					end
				end

				cur.str = cur.str .. replaceSpecialChar(chr)
			end
		else
			cur.str = cur.str .. chr
			esc = false
		end

		prev = nil
	end

	endParam()

	-- make sure that at least one required parameter has been defined
	if not next(root.req) then
		throwError("missing-required-parameter")
	end

	-- make sure that the separator parameter "%s" is not amongst the required parameters
	if root.req[parameters.separator] then
		throwError("extra-required-parameter", parameters.separator)
	end

	return root, params
end

local function sortOnRank(claims)
	local rankPos
	local ranks = {{}, {}, {}, {}}  -- preferred, normal, deprecated, (default)
	local sorted = {}

	for _, v in ipairs(claims) do
		rankPos = rankTable[v.rank] or 4
		ranks[rankPos][#ranks[rankPos] + 1] = v
	end

	sorted = ranks[1]
	sorted = mergeArrays(sorted, ranks[2])
	sorted = mergeArrays(sorted, ranks[3])

	return sorted
end

-- if id == nil then item connected to current page is used
function Config:getLabel(id, raw, link, short)
	local label = nil
	local title = nil
	local prefix= ""

	if not id then
		id = mw.wikibase.getEntityIdForCurrentPage()

		if not id then
			return ""
		end
	end

	id = id:upper()  -- just to be sure

	if raw then
		-- check if given id actually exists
		if mw.wikibase.isValidEntityId(id) and mw.wikibase.entityExists(id) then
			label = id

			if id:sub(1,1) == "P" then
				prefix = "Property:"
			end
		end

		prefix = "d:" .. prefix

		title = label  -- may be nil
	else
		-- try short name first if requested
		if short then
			label = p._property{aliasesP.shortName, [p.args.eid] = id}  -- get short name

			if label == "" then
				label = nil
			end
		end

		-- get label
		if not label then
			label = mw.wikibase.getLabelByLang(id, self.langCode)
		end
	end

	if not label then
		label = ""
	elseif link then
		-- build a link if requested
		if not title then
			if id:sub(1,1) == "Q" then
				title = mw.wikibase.getSitelink(id)
			elseif id:sub(1,1) == "P" then
				-- properties have no sitelink, link to Wikidata instead
				title = id
				prefix = "d:Property:"
			end
		end

		if title then
			label = buildWikilink(prefix .. title, label)
		end
	end

	return label
end

function Config:getEditIcon()
	local value = ""
	local prefix = ""
	local front = "&nbsp;"
	local back = ""

	if self.entityID:sub(1,1) == "P" then
		prefix = "Property:"
	end

	if self.editAtEnd then
		front = '<span style="float:'

		if self.langObj:isRTL() then
			front = front .. 'left'
		else
			front = front .. 'right'
		end

		front = front .. '">'
		back = '</span>'
	end

	value = "[[File:OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg|frameless|text-top|10px|alt=" .. i18n['info']['edit-on-wikidata'] .. "|link=https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/" .. prefix .. self.entityID .. "?uselang=" .. self.langCode

	if self.propertyID then
		value = value .. "#" .. self.propertyID
	elseif self.inSitelinks then
		value = value .. "#sitelinks-wikipedia"
	end

	value = value .. "|" .. i18n['info']['edit-on-wikidata'] .. "]]"

	return front .. value .. back
end

-- used to create the final output string when it's all done, so that for references the
-- function extensionTag("ref", ...) is only called when they really ended up in the final output
function Config:concatValues(valuesArray)
	local outString = ""
	local j, skip

	for i = 1, #valuesArray do
		-- check if this is a reference
		if valuesArray[i].refHash then
			j = i - 1
			skip = false

			-- skip this reference if it is part of a continuous row of references that already contains the exact same reference
			while valuesArray[j] and valuesArray[j].refHash do
				if valuesArray[i].refHash == valuesArray[j].refHash then
					skip = true
					break
				end
				j = j - 1
			end

			if not skip then
				-- add <ref> tag with the reference's hash as its name (to deduplicate references)
				outString = outString .. mw.getCurrentFrame():extensionTag("ref", valuesArray[i][1], {name = valuesArray[i].refHash})
			end
		else
			outString = outString .. valuesArray[i][1]
		end
	end

	return outString
end

function Config:convertUnit(unit, raw, link, short, unitOnly)
	local space = " "
	local label = ""
	local itemID

	if unit == "" or unit == "1" then
		return nil
	end

	if unitOnly then
		space = ""
	end

	itemID = parseWikidataURL(unit)

	if itemID then
		if itemID == aliasesQ.percentage then
			return "%"
		else
			label = self:getLabel(itemID, raw, link, short)

			if label ~= "" then
				return space .. label
			end
		end
	end

	return ""
end

function State:getValue(snak)
	return self.conf:getValue(snak, self.rawValue, self.linked, self.shortName, self.anyLanguage, self.unitOnly, false, self.type:sub(1,2))
end

function Config:getValue(snak, raw, link, short, anyLang, unitOnly, noSpecial, type)
	if snak.snaktype == 'value' then
		local datatype = snak.datavalue.type
		local subtype = snak.datatype
		local datavalue = snak.datavalue.value

		if datatype == 'string' then
			if subtype == 'url' and link then
				-- create link explicitly
				if raw then
					-- will render as a linked number like [1]
					return "[" .. datavalue .. "]"
				else
					return "[" .. datavalue .. " " .. datavalue .. "]"
				end
			elseif subtype == 'commonsMedia' then
				if link then
					return buildWikilink("c:File:" .. datavalue, datavalue)
				elseif not raw then
					return "[[File:" .. datavalue .. "]]"
				else
					return datavalue
				end
			elseif subtype == 'geo-shape' and link then
				return buildWikilink("c:" .. datavalue, datavalue)
			elseif subtype == 'math' and not raw then
				local attribute = nil

				if (type == parameters.property or (type == parameters.qualifier and self.propertyID == aliasesP.hasPart)) and snak.property == aliasesP.definingFormula then
					attribute = {qid = self.entityID}
				end

				return mw.getCurrentFrame():extensionTag("math", datavalue, attribute)
			elseif subtype == 'external-id' and link then
				local url = p._property{aliasesP.formatterURL, [p.args.eid] = snak.property}  -- get formatter URL

				if url ~= "" then
					url = mw.ustring.gsub(url, "$1", datavalue)
					return "[" .. url .. " " .. datavalue .. "]"
				else
					return datavalue
				end
			else
				return datavalue
			end
		elseif datatype == 'monolingualtext' then
			if anyLang or datavalue['language'] == self.langCode then
				return datavalue['text']
			else
				return nil
			end
		elseif datatype == 'quantity' then
			local value = ""
			local unit

			if not unitOnly then
				-- get value and strip + signs from front
				value = mw.ustring.gsub(datavalue['amount'], "^\+(.+)$", "%1")

				if raw then
					return value
				end

				-- replace decimal mark based on locale
				value = replaceDecimalMark(value)

				-- add delimiters for readability
				value = i18n.addDelimiters(value)
			end

			unit = self:convertUnit(datavalue['unit'], raw, link, short, unitOnly)

			if unit then
				value = value .. unit
			end

			return value
		elseif datatype == 'time' then
			local y, m, d, p, yDiv, yRound, yFull, value, calendarID, dateStr
			local yFactor = 1
			local sign = 1
			local prefix = ""
			local suffix = ""
			local mayAddCalendar = false
			local calendar = ""
			local precision = datavalue['precision']

			if precision == 11 then
				p = "d"
			elseif precision == 10 then
				p = "m"
			else
				p = "y"
				yFactor = 10^(9-precision)
			end

			y, m, d = parseDate(datavalue['time'], p)

			if y < 0 then
				sign = -1
				y = y * sign
			end

			-- if precision is tens/hundreds/thousands/millions/billions of years
			if precision <= 8 then
				yDiv = y / yFactor

				-- if precision is tens/hundreds/thousands of years
				if precision >= 6 then
					mayAddCalendar = true

					if precision <= 7 then
						-- round centuries/millenniums up (e.g. 20th century or 3rd millennium)
						yRound = math.ceil(yDiv)

						if not raw then
							if precision == 6 then
								suffix = i18n['datetime']['suffixes']['millennium']
							else
								suffix = i18n['datetime']['suffixes']['century']
							end

							suffix = i18n.getOrdinalSuffix(yRound) .. suffix
						else
							-- if not verbose, take the first year of the century/millennium
							-- (e.g. 1901 for 20th century or 2001 for 3rd millennium)
							yRound = (yRound - 1) * yFactor + 1
						end
					else
						-- precision == 8
						-- round decades down (e.g. 2010s)
						yRound = math.floor(yDiv) * yFactor

						if not raw then
							prefix = i18n['datetime']['prefixes']['decade-period']
							suffix = i18n['datetime']['suffixes']['decade-period']
						end
					end

					if raw and sign < 0 then
						-- if BCE then compensate for "counting backwards"
						-- (e.g. -2019 for 2010s BCE, -2000 for 20th century BCE or -3000 for 3rd millennium BCE)
						yRound = yRound + yFactor - 1
					end
				else
					local yReFactor, yReDiv, yReRound

					-- round to nearest for tens of thousands of years or more
					yRound = math.floor(yDiv + 0.5)

					if yRound == 0 then
						if precision <= 2 and y ~= 0 then
							yReFactor = 1e6
							yReDiv = y / yReFactor
							yReRound = math.floor(yReDiv + 0.5)

							if yReDiv == yReRound then
								-- change precision to millions of years only if we have a whole number of them
								precision = 3
								yFactor = yReFactor
								yRound = yReRound
							end
						end

						if yRound == 0 then
							-- otherwise, take the unrounded (original) number of years
							precision = 5
							yFactor = 1
							yRound = y
							mayAddCalendar = true
						end
					end

					if precision >= 1 and y ~= 0 then
						yFull = yRound * yFactor

						yReFactor = 1e9
						yReDiv = yFull / yReFactor
						yReRound = math.floor(yReDiv + 0.5)

						if yReDiv == yReRound then
							-- change precision to billions of years if we're in that range
							precision = 0
							yFactor = yReFactor
							yRound = yReRound
						else
							yReFactor = 1e6
							yReDiv = yFull / yReFactor
							yReRound = math.floor(yReDiv + 0.5)

							if yReDiv == yReRound then
								-- change precision to millions of years if we're in that range
								precision = 3
								yFactor = yReFactor
								yRound = yReRound
							end
						end
					end

					if not raw then
						if precision == 3 then
							suffix = i18n['datetime']['suffixes']['million-years']
						elseif precision == 0 then
							suffix = i18n['datetime']['suffixes']['billion-years']
						else
							yRound = yRound * yFactor
							if yRound == 1 then
								suffix = i18n['datetime']['suffixes']['year']
							else
								suffix = i18n['datetime']['suffixes']['years']
							end
						end
					else
						yRound = yRound * yFactor
					end
				end
			else
				yRound = y
				mayAddCalendar = true
			end

			if mayAddCalendar then
				calendarID = parseWikidataURL(datavalue['calendarmodel'])

				if calendarID and calendarID == aliasesQ.prolepticJulianCalendar then
					if not raw then
						if link then
							calendar = " ("..buildWikilink(i18n['datetime']['julian-calendar'], i18n['datetime']['julian'])..")"
						else
							calendar = " ("..i18n['datetime']['julian']..")"
						end
					else
						calendar = "/"..i18n['datetime']['julian']
					end
				end
			end

			if not raw then
				local ce = nil

				if sign < 0 then
					ce = i18n['datetime']['BCE']
				elseif precision <= 5 then
					ce = i18n['datetime']['CE']
				end

				if ce then
					if link then
						ce = buildWikilink(i18n['datetime']['common-era'], ce)
					end
					suffix = suffix .. " " .. ce
				end

				value = tostring(yRound)

				if m then
					dateStr = self.langObj:formatDate("F", "1-"..m.."-1")

					if d then
						if self.mdyDate then
							dateStr = dateStr .. " " .. d .. ","
						else
							dateStr = d .. " " .. dateStr
						end
					end

					value = dateStr .. " " .. value
				end

				value = prefix .. value .. suffix .. calendar
			else
				value = padZeros(yRound * sign, 4)

				if m then
					value = value .. "-" .. padZeros(m, 2)

					if d then
						value = value .. "-" .. padZeros(d, 2)
					end
				end

				value = value .. calendar
			end

			return value
		elseif datatype == 'globecoordinate' then
			-- logic from https://github.com/DataValues/Geo (v4.0.1)

			local precision, unitsPerDegree, numDigits, strFormat, value, globe
			local latitude, latConv, latValue, latLink
			local longitude, lonConv, lonValue, lonLink
			local latDirection, latDirectionN, latDirectionS, latDirectionEN
			local lonDirection, lonDirectionE, lonDirectionW, lonDirectionEN
			local degSymbol, minSymbol, secSymbol, separator

			local latDegrees = nil
			local latMinutes = nil
			local latSeconds = nil
			local lonDegrees = nil
			local lonMinutes = nil
			local lonSeconds = nil

			local latDegSym = ""
			local latMinSym = ""
			local latSecSym = ""
			local lonDegSym = ""
			local lonMinSym = ""
			local lonSecSym = ""

			local latDirectionEN_N = "N"
			local latDirectionEN_S = "S"
			local lonDirectionEN_E = "E"
			local lonDirectionEN_W = "W"

			if not raw then
				latDirectionN = i18n['coord']['latitude-north']
				latDirectionS = i18n['coord']['latitude-south']
				lonDirectionE = i18n['coord']['longitude-east']
				lonDirectionW = i18n['coord']['longitude-west']

				degSymbol = i18n['coord']['degrees']
				minSymbol = i18n['coord']['minutes']
				secSymbol = i18n['coord']['seconds']
				separator = i18n['coord']['separator']
			else
				latDirectionN = latDirectionEN_N
				latDirectionS = latDirectionEN_S
				lonDirectionE = lonDirectionEN_E
				lonDirectionW = lonDirectionEN_W

				degSymbol = "/"
				minSymbol = "/"
				secSymbol = "/"
				separator = "/"
			end

			latitude = datavalue['latitude']
			longitude = datavalue['longitude']

			if latitude < 0 then
				latDirection = latDirectionS
				latDirectionEN = latDirectionEN_S
				latitude = math.abs(latitude)
			else
				latDirection = latDirectionN
				latDirectionEN = latDirectionEN_N
			end

			if longitude < 0 then
				lonDirection = lonDirectionW
				lonDirectionEN = lonDirectionEN_W
				longitude = math.abs(longitude)
			else
				lonDirection = lonDirectionE
				lonDirectionEN = lonDirectionEN_E
			end

			precision = datavalue['precision']

			if not precision or precision <= 0 then
				precision = 1 / 3600  -- precision not set (correctly), set to arcsecond
			end

			-- remove insignificant detail
			latitude = math.floor(latitude / precision + 0.5) * precision
			longitude = math.floor(longitude / precision + 0.5) * precision

			if precision >= 1 - (1 / 60) and precision < 1 then
				precision = 1
			elseif precision >= (1 / 60) - (1 / 3600) and precision < (1 / 60) then
				precision = 1 / 60
			end

			if precision >= 1 then
				unitsPerDegree = 1
			elseif precision >= (1 / 60)  then
				unitsPerDegree = 60
			else
				unitsPerDegree = 3600
			end

			numDigits = math.ceil(-math.log10(unitsPerDegree * precision))

			if numDigits <= 0 then
				numDigits = tonumber("0")  -- for some reason, 'numDigits = 0' may actually store '-0', so parse from string instead
			end

			strFormat = "%." .. numDigits .. "f"

			if precision >= 1 then
				latDegrees = strFormat:format(latitude)
				lonDegrees = strFormat:format(longitude)

				if not raw then
					latDegSym = replaceDecimalMark(latDegrees) .. degSymbol
					lonDegSym = replaceDecimalMark(lonDegrees) .. degSymbol
				else
					latDegSym = latDegrees .. degSymbol
					lonDegSym = lonDegrees .. degSymbol
				end
			else
				latConv = math.floor(latitude * unitsPerDegree * 10^numDigits + 0.5) / 10^numDigits
				lonConv = math.floor(longitude * unitsPerDegree * 10^numDigits + 0.5) / 10^numDigits

				if precision >= (1 / 60) then
					latMinutes = latConv
					lonMinutes = lonConv
				else
					latSeconds = latConv
					lonSeconds = lonConv

					latMinutes = math.floor(latSeconds / 60)
					lonMinutes = math.floor(lonSeconds / 60)

					latSeconds = strFormat:format(latSeconds - (latMinutes * 60))
					lonSeconds = strFormat:format(lonSeconds - (lonMinutes * 60))

					if not raw then
						latSecSym = replaceDecimalMark(latSeconds) .. secSymbol
						lonSecSym = replaceDecimalMark(lonSeconds) .. secSymbol
					else
						latSecSym = latSeconds .. secSymbol
						lonSecSym = lonSeconds .. secSymbol
					end
				end

				latDegrees = math.floor(latMinutes / 60)
				lonDegrees = math.floor(lonMinutes / 60)

				latDegSym = latDegrees .. degSymbol
				lonDegSym = lonDegrees .. degSymbol

				latMinutes = latMinutes - (latDegrees * 60)
				lonMinutes = lonMinutes - (lonDegrees * 60)

				if precision >= (1 / 60) then
					latMinutes = strFormat:format(latMinutes)
					lonMinutes = strFormat:format(lonMinutes)

					if not raw then
						latMinSym = replaceDecimalMark(latMinutes) .. minSymbol
						lonMinSym = replaceDecimalMark(lonMinutes) .. minSymbol
					else
						latMinSym = latMinutes .. minSymbol
						lonMinSym = lonMinutes .. minSymbol
					end
				else
					latMinSym = latMinutes .. minSymbol
					lonMinSym = lonMinutes .. minSymbol
				end
			end

			latValue = latDegSym .. latMinSym .. latSecSym .. latDirection
			lonValue = lonDegSym .. lonMinSym .. lonSecSym .. lonDirection

			value = latValue .. separator .. lonValue

			if link then
				globe = parseWikidataURL(datavalue['globe'])

				if globe then
					globe = mw.wikibase.getLabelByLang(globe, "en"):lower()
				else
					globe = "earth"
				end

				latLink = table.concat({latDegrees, latMinutes, latSeconds}, "_")
				lonLink = table.concat({lonDegrees, lonMinutes, lonSeconds}, "_")

				value = "[https://tools.wmflabs.org/geohack/geohack.php?language="..self.langCode.."&params="..latLink.."_"..latDirectionEN.."_"..lonLink.."_"..lonDirectionEN.."_globe:"..globe.." "..value.."]"
			end

			return value
		elseif datatype == 'wikibase-entityid' then
			local label
			local itemID = datavalue['numeric-id']

			if subtype == 'wikibase-item' then
				itemID = "Q" .. itemID
			elseif subtype == 'wikibase-property' then
				itemID = "P" .. itemID
			else
				return '<strong class="error">' .. errorText('unknown-data-type', subtype) .. '</strong>'
			end

			label = self:getLabel(itemID, raw, link, short)

			if label == "" then
				label = nil
			end

			return label
		else
			return '<strong class="error">' .. errorText('unknown-data-type', datatype) .. '</strong>'
		end
	elseif snak.snaktype == 'somevalue' and not noSpecial then
		if raw then
			return " "  -- single space represents 'somevalue'
		else
			return i18n['values']['unknown']
		end
	elseif snak.snaktype == 'novalue' and not noSpecial then
		if raw then
			return ""  -- empty string represents 'novalue'
		else
			return i18n['values']['none']
		end
	else
		return nil
	end
end

function Config:getSingleRawQualifier(claim, qualifierID)
	local qualifiers

	if claim.qualifiers then qualifiers = claim.qualifiers[qualifierID] end

	if qualifiers and qualifiers[1] then
		return self:getValue(qualifiers[1], true)  -- raw = true
	else
		return nil
	end
end

function Config:snakEqualsValue(snak, value)
	local snakValue = self:getValue(snak, true)  -- raw = true

	if snakValue and snak.snaktype == 'value' and snak.datavalue.type == 'wikibase-entityid' then value = value:upper() end

	return snakValue == value
end

function Config:setRank(rank)
	local rankPos

	if rank == p.flags.best then
		self.bestRank = true
		self.flagBest = true  -- mark that 'best' flag was given
		return
	end

	if rank:sub(1,9) == p.flags.preferred then
		rankPos = 1
	elseif rank:sub(1,6) == p.flags.normal then
		rankPos = 2
	elseif rank:sub(1,10) == p.flags.deprecated then
		rankPos = 3
	else
		return
	end

	-- one of the rank flags was given, check if another one was given before
	if not self.flagRank then
		self.ranks = {false, false, false}  -- no other rank flag given before, so unset ranks
		self.bestRank = self.flagBest       -- unsets bestRank only if 'best' flag was not given before
		self.flagRank = true                -- mark that a rank flag was given
	end

	if rank:sub(-1) == "+" then
		for i = rankPos, 1, -1 do
			self.ranks[i] = true
		end
	elseif rank:sub(-1) == "-" then
		for i = rankPos, #self.ranks do
			self.ranks[i] = true
		end
	else
		self.ranks[rankPos] = true
	end
end

function Config:setPeriod(period)
	local periodPos

	if period == p.flags.future then
		periodPos = 1
	elseif period == p.flags.current then
		periodPos = 2
	elseif period == p.flags.former then
		periodPos = 3
	else
		return
	end

	-- one of the period flags was given, check if another one was given before
	if not self.flagPeriod then
		self.periods = {false, false, false}  -- no other period flag given before, so unset periods
		self.flagPeriod = true                -- mark that a period flag was given
	end

	self.periods[periodPos] = true
end

function Config:qualifierMatches(claim, id, value)
	local qualifiers

	if claim.qualifiers then qualifiers = claim.qualifiers[id] end
	if qualifiers then
		for _, v in pairs(qualifiers) do
			if self:snakEqualsValue(v, value) then
				return true
			end
		end
	elseif value == "" then
		-- if the qualifier is not present then treat it the same as the special value 'novalue'
		return true
	end

	return false
end

function Config:rankMatches(rankPos)
	if self.bestRank then
		return (self.ranks[rankPos] and self.foundRank >= rankPos)
	else
		return self.ranks[rankPos]
	end
end

function Config:timeMatches(claim)
	local startTime = nil
	local startTimeY = nil
	local startTimeM = nil
	local startTimeD = nil
	local endTime = nil
	local endTimeY = nil
	local endTimeM = nil
	local endTimeD = nil

	if self.periods[1] and self.periods[2] and self.periods[3] then
		-- any time
		return true
	end

	startTime = self:getSingleRawQualifier(claim, aliasesP.startTime)
	if startTime and startTime ~= "" and startTime ~= " " then
		startTimeY, startTimeM, startTimeD = parseDate(startTime)
	end

	endTime = self:getSingleRawQualifier(claim, aliasesP.endTime)
	if endTime and endTime ~= "" and endTime ~= " " then
		endTimeY, endTimeM, endTimeD = parseDate(endTime)
	end

	if startTimeY ~= nil and endTimeY ~= nil and datePrecedesDate(endTimeY, endTimeM, endTimeD, startTimeY, startTimeM, startTimeD) then
		-- invalidate end time if it precedes start time
		endTimeY = nil
		endTimeM = nil
		endTimeD = nil
	end

	if self.periods[1] then
		-- future
		if startTimeY and datePrecedesDate(self.atDate[1], self.atDate[2], self.atDate[3], startTimeY, startTimeM, startTimeD) then
			return true
		end
	end

	if self.periods[2] then
		-- current
		if (startTimeY == nil or not datePrecedesDate(self.atDate[1], self.atDate[2], self.atDate[3], startTimeY, startTimeM, startTimeD)) and
		   (endTimeY == nil or datePrecedesDate(self.atDate[1], self.atDate[2], self.atDate[3], endTimeY, endTimeM, endTimeD)) then
			return true
		end
	end

	if self.periods[3] then
		-- former
		if endTimeY and not datePrecedesDate(self.atDate[1], self.atDate[2], self.atDate[3], endTimeY, endTimeM, endTimeD) then
			return true
		end
	end

	return false
end

function Config:processFlag(flag)
	if not flag then
		return false
	end

	if flag == p.flags.linked then
		self.curState.linked = true
		return true
	elseif flag == p.flags.raw then
		self.curState.rawValue = true

		if self.curState == self.states[parameters.reference] then
			-- raw reference values end with periods and require a separator (other than none)
			self.separators["sep%r"][1] = {" "}
		end

		return true
	elseif flag == p.flags.short then
		self.curState.shortName = true
		return true
	elseif flag == p.flags.multilanguage then
		self.curState.anyLanguage = true
		return true
	elseif flag == p.flags.unit then
		self.curState.unitOnly = true
		return true
	elseif flag == p.flags.mdy then
		self.mdyDate = true
		return true
	elseif flag == p.flags.single then
		self.singleClaim = true
		return true
	elseif flag == p.flags.sourced then
		self.sourcedOnly = true
		return true
	elseif flag == p.flags.edit then
		self.editable = true
		return true
	elseif flag == p.flags.editAtEnd then
		self.editable = true
		self.editAtEnd = true
		return true
	elseif flag == p.flags.best or flag:match('^'..p.flags.preferred..'[+-]?$') or flag:match('^'..p.flags.normal..'[+-]?$') or flag:match('^'..p.flags.deprecated..'[+-]?$') then
		self:setRank(flag)
		return true
	elseif flag == p.flags.future or flag == p.flags.current or flag == p.flags.former then
		self:setPeriod(flag)
		return true
	elseif flag == "" then
		-- ignore empty flags and carry on
		return true
	else
		return false
	end
end

function Config:processFlagOrCommand(flag)
	local param = ""

	if not flag then
		return false
	end

	if flag == p.claimCommands.property or flag == p.claimCommands.properties then
		param = parameters.property
	elseif flag == p.claimCommands.qualifier or flag == p.claimCommands.qualifiers then
		self.states.qualifiersCount = self.states.qualifiersCount + 1
		param = parameters.qualifier .. self.states.qualifiersCount
		self.separators["sep"..param] = {copyTable(defaultSeparators["sep%q\\d"])}
	elseif flag == p.claimCommands.reference or flag == p.claimCommands.references then
		param = parameters.reference
	else
		return self:processFlag(flag)
	end

	if self.states[param] then
		return false
	end

	-- create a new state for each command
	self.states[param] = State:new(self, param)

	-- use "%x" as the general parameter name
	self.states[param].parsedFormat = parseFormat(parameters.general)  -- will be overwritten for param=="%p"

	-- set the separator
	self.states[param].separator = self.separators["sep"..param]  -- will be nil for param=="%p", which will be set separately

	if flag == p.claimCommands.property or flag == p.claimCommands.qualifier or flag == p.claimCommands.reference then
		self.states[param].singleValue = true
	end

	self.curState = self.states[param]

	return true
end

function Config:processSeparators(args)
	local sep

	for i, v in pairs(self.separators) do
		if args[i] then
			sep = replaceSpecialChars(args[i])

			if sep ~= "" then
				self.separators[i][1] = {sep}
			else
				self.separators[i][1] = nil
			end
		end
	end
end

function Config:setFormatAndSeparators(state, parsedFormat)
	state.parsedFormat = parsedFormat
	state.separator = self.separators["sep"]
	state.movSeparator = self.separators["sep"..parameters.separator]
	state.puncMark = self.separators["punc"]
end

-- determines if a claim has references by prefetching them from the claim using getReferences,
-- which applies some filtering that determines if a reference is actually returned,
-- and caches the references for later use
function State:isSourced(claim)
	self.conf.prefetchedRefs = self:getReferences(claim)
	return (#self.conf.prefetchedRefs > 0)
end

function State:resetCaches()
	-- any prefetched references of the previous claim must not be used
	self.conf.prefetchedRefs = nil
end

function State:claimMatches(claim)
	local matches, rankPos

	-- first of all, reset any cached values used for the previous claim
	self:resetCaches()

	-- if a property value was given, check if it matches the claim's property value
	if self.conf.propertyValue then
		matches = self.conf:snakEqualsValue(claim.mainsnak, self.conf.propertyValue)
	else
		matches = true
	end

	-- if any qualifier values were given, check if each matches one of the claim's qualifier values
	for i, v in pairs(self.conf.qualifierIDsAndValues) do
		matches = (matches and self.conf:qualifierMatches(claim, i, v))
	end

	-- check if the claim's rank and time period match
	rankPos = rankTable[claim.rank] or 4
	matches = (matches and self.conf:rankMatches(rankPos) and self.conf:timeMatches(claim))

	-- if only claims with references must be returned, check if this one has any
	if self.conf.sourcedOnly then
		matches = (matches and self:isSourced(claim))  -- prefetches and caches references
	end

	return matches, rankPos
end

function State:out()
	local result  -- collection of arrays with value objects
	local valuesArray  -- array with value objects
	local sep = nil  -- value object
	local out = {}  -- array with value objects

	local function walk(formatTable, result)
		local valuesArray = {}  -- array with value objects

		for i, v in pairs(formatTable.req) do
			if not result[i] or not result[i][1] then
				-- we've got no result for a parameter that is required on this level,
				-- so skip this level (and its children) by returning an empty result
				return {}
			end
		end

		for _, v in ipairs(formatTable) do
			if v.param then
				valuesArray = mergeArrays(valuesArray, result[v.str])
			elseif v.str ~= "" then
				valuesArray[#valuesArray + 1] = {v.str}
			end

			if v.child then
				valuesArray = mergeArrays(valuesArray, walk(v.child, result))
			end
		end

		return valuesArray
	end

	-- iterate through the results from back to front, so that we know when to add separators
	for i = #self.results, 1, -1 do
		result = self.results[i]

		-- if there is already some output, then add the separators
		if #out > 0 then
			sep = self.separator[1]  -- fixed separator
			result[parameters.separator] = {self.movSeparator[1]}  -- movable separator
		else
			sep = nil
			result[parameters.separator] = {self.puncMark[1]}  -- optional punctuation mark
		end

		valuesArray = walk(self.parsedFormat, result)

		if #valuesArray > 0 then
			if sep then
				valuesArray[#valuesArray + 1] = sep
			end

			out = mergeArrays(valuesArray, out)
		end
	end

	-- reset state before next iteration
	self.results = {}

	return out
end

-- level 1 hook
function State:getProperty(claim)
	local value = {self:getValue(claim.mainsnak)}  -- create one value object

	if #value > 0 then
		return {value}  -- wrap the value object in an array and return it
	else
		return {}  -- return empty array if there was no value
	end
end

-- level 1 hook
function State:getQualifiers(claim, param)
	local qualifiers

	if claim.qualifiers then qualifiers = claim.qualifiers[self.conf.qualifierIDs[param]] end
	if qualifiers then
		-- iterate through claim's qualifier statements to collect their values;
		-- return array with multiple value objects
		return self.conf.states[param]:iterate(qualifiers, {[parameters.general] = hookNames[parameters.qualifier.."\\d"][2], count = 1})  -- pass qualifier state with level 2 hook
	else
		return {}  -- return empty array
	end
end

-- level 2 hook
function State:getQualifier(snak)
	local value = {self:getValue(snak)}  -- create one value object

	if #value > 0 then
		return {value}  -- wrap the value object in an array and return it
	else
		return {}  -- return empty array if there was no value
	end
end

-- level 1 hook
function State:getAllQualifiers(claim, param, result, hooks)
	local out = {}  -- array with value objects
	local sep = self.conf.separators["sep"..parameters.qualifier][1]  -- value object

	-- iterate through the output of the separate "qualifier(s)" commands
	for i = 1, self.conf.states.qualifiersCount do

		-- if a hook has not been called yet, call it now
		if not result[parameters.qualifier..i] then
			self:callHook(parameters.qualifier..i, hooks, claim, result)
		end

		-- if there is output for this particular "qualifier(s)" command, then add it
		if result[parameters.qualifier..i] and result[parameters.qualifier..i][1] then

			-- if there is already some output, then add the separator
			if #out > 0 and sep then
				out[#out + 1] = sep
			end

			out = mergeArrays(out, result[parameters.qualifier..i])
		end
	end

	return out
end

-- level 1 hook
function State:getReferences(claim)
	if self.conf.prefetchedRefs then
		-- return references that have been prefetched by isSourced
		return self.conf.prefetchedRefs
	end

	if claim.references then
		-- iterate through claim's reference statements to collect their values;
		-- return array with multiple value objects
		return self.conf.states[parameters.reference]:iterate(claim.references, {[parameters.general] = hookNames[parameters.reference][2], count = 1})  -- pass reference state with level 2 hook
	else
		return {}  -- return empty array
	end
end

-- level 2 hook
function State:getReference(statement)
	local key, citeWeb, citeQ, label
	local params = {}
	local citeParams = {['web'] = {}, ['q'] = {}}
	local citeMismatch = {}
	local useCite = nil
	local useParams = nil
	local value = ""
	local ref = {}

	local version = 1  -- increment this each time the below logic is changed to avoid conflict errors

	if statement.snaks then
		-- don't include "imported from", which is added by a bot
		if statement.snaks[aliasesP.importedFrom] then
			statement.snaks[aliasesP.importedFrom] = nil
		end

		-- don't include "inferred from", which is added by a bot
		if statement.snaks[aliasesP.inferredFrom] then
			statement.snaks[aliasesP.inferredFrom] = nil
		end

		-- don't include "type of reference"
		if statement.snaks[aliasesP.typeOfReference] then
			statement.snaks[aliasesP.typeOfReference] = nil
		end

		-- don't include "image" to prevent littering
		if statement.snaks[aliasesP.image] then
			statement.snaks[aliasesP.image] = nil
		end

		-- don't include "language" if it is equal to the local one
		if self:getReferenceDetail(statement.snaks, aliasesP.language) == self.conf.langName then
			statement.snaks[aliasesP.language] = nil
		end

		-- retrieve all the parameters
		for i in pairs(statement.snaks) do
			label = ""

			-- multiple authors may be given
			if i == aliasesP.author then
				params[i] = self:getReferenceDetails(statement.snaks, i, false, self.linked, true)  -- link = true/false, anyLang = true
			else
				params[i] = {self:getReferenceDetail(statement.snaks, i, false, (self.linked or (i == aliasesP.statedIn)) and (statement.snaks[i][1].datatype ~= 'url'), true)}  -- link = true/false, anyLang = true
			end

			if #params[i] == 0 then
				params[i] = nil
			else
				if statement.snaks[i][1].datatype == 'external-id' then
					key = "external-id"
					label = self.conf:getLabel(i)

					if label ~= "" then
						label = label .. " "
					end
				else
					key = i
				end

				-- add the parameter to each matching type of citation
				for j in pairs(citeParams) do
					-- do so if there was no mismatch with a previous parameter
					if not citeMismatch[j] then
						-- check if this parameter is not mismatching itself
						if i18n['cite'][j][key] then
							-- continue if an option is available in the corresponding cite template
							if i18n['cite'][j][key] ~= "" then
								citeParams[j][i18n['cite'][j][key]] = label .. params[i][1]

								-- if there are multiple parameter values (authors), add those too
								for k=2, #params[i] do
									citeParams[j][i18n['cite'][j][key]..k] = label .. params[i][k]
								end
							end
						else
							citeMismatch[j] = true
						end
					end
				end
			end
		end

		-- get title of general template for citing web references
		citeWeb = split(mw.wikibase.getSitelink(aliasesQ.citeWeb) or "", ":")[2]  -- split off namespace from front

		-- get title of template that expands stated-in references into citations
		citeQ = split(mw.wikibase.getSitelink(aliasesQ.citeQ) or "", ":")[2]  -- split off namespace from front

		-- (1) use the general template for citing web references if there is a match and if at least both "reference URL" and "title" are present
		if citeWeb and not citeMismatch['web'] and citeParams['web'][i18n['cite']['web'][aliasesP.referenceURL]] and citeParams['web'][i18n['cite']['web'][aliasesP.title]] then
			useCite = citeWeb
			useParams = citeParams['web']

		-- (2) use the template that expands stated-in references into citations if there is a match and if at least "stated in" is present
		elseif citeQ and not citeMismatch['q'] and citeParams['q'][i18n['cite']['q'][aliasesP.statedIn]] then
			-- we need the raw "stated in" Q-identifier for the this template
			citeParams['q'][i18n['cite']['q'][aliasesP.statedIn]] = self:getReferenceDetail(statement.snaks, aliasesP.statedIn, true)  -- raw = true

			useCite = citeQ
			useParams = citeParams['q']
		end

		if useCite and useParams then
			-- if this module is being substituted then build a regular template call, otherwise expand the template
			if mw.isSubsting() then
				for i, v in pairs(useParams) do
					value = value .. "|" .. i .. "=" .. v
				end

				value = "{{" .. useCite .. value .. "}}"
			else
				value = mw.getCurrentFrame():expandTemplate{title=useCite, args=useParams}
			end

		-- (3) else, do some default rendering of name-value pairs, but only if at least "stated in", "reference URL" or "title" is present
		elseif params[aliasesP.statedIn] or params[aliasesP.referenceURL] or params[aliasesP.title] then
			citeParams['default'] = {}

			-- start by adding authors up front
			if params[aliasesP.author] and #params[aliasesP.author] > 0 then
				citeParams['default'][#citeParams['default'] + 1] = table.concat(params[aliasesP.author], " & ")
			end

			-- combine "reference URL" and "title" into one link if both are present
			if params[aliasesP.referenceURL] and params[aliasesP.title] then
				citeParams['default'][#citeParams['default'] + 1] = '[' .. params[aliasesP.referenceURL][1] .. ' "' .. params[aliasesP.title][1] .. '"]'
			elseif params[aliasesP.referenceURL] then
				citeParams['default'][#citeParams['default'] + 1] = params[aliasesP.referenceURL][1]
			elseif params[aliasesP.title] then
				citeParams['default'][#citeParams['default'] + 1] = '"' .. params[aliasesP.title][1] .. '"'
			end

			-- then add "stated in"
			if params[aliasesP.statedIn] then
				citeParams['default'][#citeParams['default'] + 1] = "''" .. params[aliasesP.statedIn][1] .. "''"
			end

			-- remove previously added parameters so that they won't be added a second time
			params[aliasesP.author] = nil
			params[aliasesP.referenceURL] = nil
			params[aliasesP.title] = nil
			params[aliasesP.statedIn] = nil

			-- add the rest of the parameters
			for i, v in pairs(params) do
				i = self.conf:getLabel(i)

				if i ~= "" then
					citeParams['default'][#citeParams['default'] + 1] = i .. ": " .. v[1]
				end
			end

			value = table.concat(citeParams['default'], "; ")

			if value ~= "" then
				value = value .. "."
			end
		end

		if value ~= "" then
			value = {value}  -- create one value object

			if not self.rawValue then
				-- this should become a <ref> tag, so save the reference's hash for later
				value.refHash = "wikidata-" .. statement.hash .. "-v" .. (tonumber(i18n['cite']['version']) + version)
			end

			ref = {value}  -- wrap the value object in an array
		end
	end

	return ref
end

-- gets a detail of one particular type for a reference
function State:getReferenceDetail(snaks, dType, raw, link, anyLang)
	local switchLang = anyLang
	local value = nil

	if not snaks[dType] then
		return nil
	end

	-- if anyLang, first try the local language and otherwise any language
	repeat
		for _, v in ipairs(snaks[dType]) do
			value = self.conf:getValue(v, raw, link, false, anyLang and not switchLang, false, true)  -- noSpecial = true

			if value then
				break
			end
		end

		if value or not anyLang then
			break
		end

		switchLang = not switchLang
	until anyLang and switchLang

	return value
end

-- gets the details of one particular type for a reference
function State:getReferenceDetails(snaks, dType, raw, link, anyLang)
	local values = {}

	if not snaks[dType] then
		return {}
	end

	for _, v in ipairs(snaks[dType]) do
		-- if nil is returned then it will not be added to the table
		values[#values + 1] = self.conf:getValue(v, raw, link, false, anyLang, false, true)  -- noSpecial = true
	end

	return values
end

-- level 1 hook
function State:getAlias(object)
	local value = object.value
	local title = nil

	if value and self.linked then
		if self.conf.entityID:sub(1,1) == "Q" then
			title = mw.wikibase.getSitelink(self.conf.entityID)
		elseif self.conf.entityID:sub(1,1) == "P" then
			title = "d:Property:" .. self.conf.entityID
		end

		if title then
			value = buildWikilink(title, value)
		end
	end

	value = {value}  -- create one value object

	if #value > 0 then
		return {value}  -- wrap the value object in an array and return it
	else
		return {}  -- return empty array if there was no value
	end
end

-- level 1 hook
function State:getBadge(value)
	value = self.conf:getLabel(value, self.rawValue, self.linked, self.shortName)

	if value == "" then
		value = nil
	end

	value = {value}  -- create one value object

	if #value > 0 then
		return {value}  -- wrap the value object in an array and return it
	else
		return {}  -- return empty array if there was no value
	end
end

function State:callHook(param, hooks, statement, result)
	local valuesArray, refHash

	-- call a parameter's hook if it has been defined and if it has not been called before
	if not result[param] and hooks[param] then
		valuesArray = self[hooks[param]](self, statement, param, result, hooks)  -- array with value objects

		-- add to the result
		if #valuesArray > 0 then
			result[param] = valuesArray
			result.count = result.count + 1
		else
			result[param] = {}  -- an empty array to indicate that we've tried this hook already
			return true  -- miss == true
		end
	end

	return false
end

-- iterate through claims, claim's qualifiers or claim's references to collect values
function State:iterate(statements, hooks, matchHook)
	matchHook = matchHook or alwaysTrue

	local matches = false
	local rankPos = nil
	local result, gotRequired

	for _, v in ipairs(statements) do
		-- rankPos will be nil for non-claim statements (e.g. qualifiers, references, etc.)
		matches, rankPos = matchHook(self, v)

		if matches then
			result = {count = 0}  -- collection of arrays with value objects

			local function walk(formatTable)
				local miss

				for i2, v2 in pairs(formatTable.req) do
					-- call a hook, adding its return value to the result
					miss = self:callHook(i2, hooks, v, result)

					if miss then
						-- we miss a required value for this level, so return false
						return false
					end

					if result.count == hooks.count then
						-- we're done if all hooks have been called;
						-- returning at this point breaks the loop
						return true
					end
				end

				for _, v2 in ipairs(formatTable) do
					if result.count == hooks.count then
						-- we're done if all hooks have been called;
						-- returning at this point prevents further childs from being processed
						return true
					end

					if v2.child then
						walk(v2.child)
					end
				end

				return true
			end
			gotRequired = walk(self.parsedFormat)

			-- only append the result if we got values for all required parameters on the root level
			if gotRequired then
				-- if we have a rankPos (only with matchHook() for complete claims), then update the foundRank
				if rankPos and self.conf.foundRank > rankPos then
					self.conf.foundRank = rankPos
				end

				-- append the result
				self.results[#self.results + 1] = result

				-- break if we only need a single value
				if self.singleValue then
					break
				end
			end
		end
	end

	return self:out()
end

local function getEntityId(arg, eid, page, allowOmitPropPrefix)
	local id = nil
	local prop = nil

	if arg then
		if arg:sub(1,1) == ":" then
			page = arg
			eid = nil
		elseif arg:sub(1,1):upper() == "Q" or arg:sub(1,9):lower() == "property:" or allowOmitPropPrefix then
			eid = arg
			page = nil
		else
			prop = arg
		end
	end

	if eid then
		if eid:sub(1,9):lower() == "property:" then
			id = replaceAlias(mw.text.trim(eid:sub(10)))

			if id:sub(1,1):upper() ~= "P" then
				id = ""
			end
		else
			id = replaceAlias(eid)
		end
	elseif page then
		if page:sub(1,1) == ":" then
			page = mw.text.trim(page:sub(2))
		end

		id = mw.wikibase.getEntityIdForTitle(page) or ""
	end

	if not id then
		id = mw.wikibase.getEntityIdForCurrentPage() or ""
	end

	id = id:upper()

	if not mw.wikibase.isValidEntityId(id) then
		id = ""
	end

	return id, prop
end

local function nextArg(args)
	local arg = args[args.pointer]

	if arg then
		args.pointer = args.pointer + 1
		return mw.text.trim(arg)
	else
		return nil
	end
end

local function claimCommand(args, funcName)
	local cfg = Config:new()
	cfg:processFlagOrCommand(funcName)  -- process first command (== function name)

	local lastArg, parsedFormat, formatParams, claims, value
	local hooks = {count = 0}

	-- set the date if given;
	-- must come BEFORE processing the flags
	if args[p.args.date] then
		cfg.atDate = {parseDate(args[p.args.date])}
		cfg.periods = {false, true, false}  -- change default time constraint to 'current'
	end

	-- process flags and commands
	repeat
		lastArg = nextArg(args)
	until not cfg:processFlagOrCommand(lastArg)

	-- get the entity ID from either the positional argument, the eid argument or the page argument
	cfg.entityID, cfg.propertyID = getEntityId(lastArg, args[p.args.eid], args[p.args.page])

	if cfg.entityID == "" then
		return ""  -- we cannot continue without a valid entity ID
	end

	cfg.entity = mw.wikibase.getEntity(cfg.entityID)

	if not cfg.propertyID then
		cfg.propertyID = nextArg(args)
	end

	cfg.propertyID = replaceAlias(cfg.propertyID)

	if not cfg.entity or not cfg.propertyID then
		return ""  -- we cannot continue without an entity or a property ID
	end

	cfg.propertyID = cfg.propertyID:upper()

	if not cfg.entity.claims or not cfg.entity.claims[cfg.propertyID] then
		return ""  -- there is no use to continue without any claims
	end

	claims = cfg.entity.claims[cfg.propertyID]

	if cfg.states.qualifiersCount > 0 then
		-- do further processing if "qualifier(s)" command was given

		if #args - args.pointer + 1 > cfg.states.qualifiersCount then
			-- claim ID or literal value has been given

			cfg.propertyValue = nextArg(args)
		end

		for i = 1, cfg.states.qualifiersCount do
			-- check if given qualifier ID is an alias and add it
			cfg.qualifierIDs[parameters.qualifier..i] = replaceAlias(nextArg(args) or ""):upper()
		end
	elseif cfg.states[parameters.reference] then
		-- do further processing if "reference(s)" command was given

		cfg.propertyValue = nextArg(args)
	end

	-- check for special property value 'somevalue' or 'novalue'
	if cfg.propertyValue then
		cfg.propertyValue = replaceSpecialChars(cfg.propertyValue)

		if cfg.propertyValue ~= "" and mw.text.trim(cfg.propertyValue) == "" then
			cfg.propertyValue = " "  -- single space represents 'somevalue', whereas empty string represents 'novalue'
		else
			cfg.propertyValue = mw.text.trim(cfg.propertyValue)
		end
	end

	-- parse the desired format, or choose an appropriate format
	if args["format"] then
		parsedFormat, formatParams = parseFormat(args["format"])
	elseif cfg.states.qualifiersCount > 0 then  -- "qualifier(s)" command given
		if cfg.states[parameters.property] then  -- "propert(y|ies)" command given
			parsedFormat, formatParams = parseFormat(formats.propertyWithQualifier)
		else
			parsedFormat, formatParams = parseFormat(formats.qualifier)
		end
	elseif cfg.states[parameters.property] then  -- "propert(y|ies)" command given
		parsedFormat, formatParams = parseFormat(formats.property)
	else  -- "reference(s)" command given
		parsedFormat, formatParams = parseFormat(formats.reference)
	end

	-- if a "qualifier(s)" command and no "propert(y|ies)" command has been given, make the movable separator a semicolon
	if cfg.states.qualifiersCount > 0 and not cfg.states[parameters.property] then
		cfg.separators["sep"..parameters.separator][1] = {";"}
	end

	-- if only "reference(s)" has been given, set the default separator to none (except when raw)
	if cfg.states[parameters.reference] and not cfg.states[parameters.property] and cfg.states.qualifiersCount == 0
	   and not cfg.states[parameters.reference].rawValue then
		cfg.separators["sep"][1] = nil
	end

	-- if exactly one "qualifier(s)" command has been given, make "sep%q" point to "sep%q1" to make them equivalent
	if cfg.states.qualifiersCount == 1 then
		cfg.separators["sep"..parameters.qualifier] = cfg.separators["sep"..parameters.qualifier.."1"]
	end

	-- process overridden separator values;
	-- must come AFTER tweaking the default separators
	cfg:processSeparators(args)

	-- define the hooks that should be called (getProperty, getQualifiers, getReferences);
	-- only define a hook if both its command ("propert(y|ies)", "reference(s)", "qualifier(s)") and its parameter ("%p", "%r", "%q1", "%q2", "%q3") have been given
	for i, v in pairs(cfg.states) do
		-- e.g. 'formatParams["%q1"] or formatParams["%q"]' to define hook even if "%q1" was not defined to be able to build a complete value for "%q"
		if formatParams[i] or formatParams[i:sub(1, 2)] then
			hooks[i] = getHookName(i, 1)
			hooks.count = hooks.count + 1
		end
	end

	-- the "%q" parameter is not attached to a state, but is a collection of the results of multiple states (attached to "%q1", "%q2", "%q3", ...);
	-- so if this parameter is given then this hook must be defined separately, but only if at least one "qualifier(s)" command has been given
	if formatParams[parameters.qualifier] and cfg.states.qualifiersCount > 0 then
		hooks[parameters.qualifier] = getHookName(parameters.qualifier, 1)
		hooks.count = hooks.count + 1
	end

	-- create a state for "properties" if it doesn't exist yet, which will be used as a base configuration for each claim iteration;
	-- must come AFTER defining the hooks
	if not cfg.states[parameters.property] then
		cfg.states[parameters.property] = State:new(cfg, parameters.property)

		-- if the "single" flag has been given then this state should be equivalent to "property" (singular)
		if cfg.singleClaim then
			cfg.states[parameters.property].singleValue = true
		end
	end

	-- if the "sourced" flag has been given then create a state for "reference" if it doesn't exist yet, using default values,
	-- which must exist in order to be able to determine if a claim has any references;
	-- must come AFTER defining the hooks
	if cfg.sourcedOnly and not cfg.states[parameters.reference] then
		cfg:processFlagOrCommand(p.claimCommands.reference)  -- use singular "reference" to minimize overhead
	end

	-- set the parsed format and the separators (and optional punctuation mark);
	-- must come AFTER creating the additonal states
	cfg:setFormatAndSeparators(cfg.states[parameters.property], parsedFormat)

	-- process qualifier matching values, analogous to cfg.propertyValue
	for i, v in pairs(args) do
		i = tostring(i)

		if i:match('^[Pp]%d+$') or aliasesP[i] then
			v = replaceSpecialChars(v)

			-- check for special qualifier value 'somevalue'
			if v ~= "" and mw.text.trim(v) == "" then
				v = " "  -- single space represents 'somevalue'
			end

			cfg.qualifierIDsAndValues[replaceAlias(i):upper()] = v
		end
	end

	-- first sort the claims on rank to pre-define the order of output (preferred first, then normal, then deprecated)
	claims = sortOnRank(claims)

	-- then iterate through the claims to collect values
	value = cfg:concatValues(cfg.states[parameters.property]:iterate(claims, hooks, State.claimMatches))  -- pass property state with level 1 hooks and matchHook

	-- if desired, add a clickable icon that may be used to edit the returned values on Wikidata
	if cfg.editable and value ~= "" then
		value = value .. cfg:getEditIcon()
	end

	return value
end

local function generalCommand(args, funcName)
	local cfg = Config:new()
	cfg.curState = State:new(cfg)

	local lastArg
	local value = nil

	repeat
		lastArg = nextArg(args)
	until not cfg:processFlag(lastArg)

	-- get the entity ID from either the positional argument, the eid argument or the page argument
	cfg.entityID = getEntityId(lastArg, args[p.args.eid], args[p.args.page], true)

	if cfg.entityID == "" or not mw.wikibase.entityExists(cfg.entityID) then
		return ""  -- we cannot continue without an entity
	end

	-- serve according to the given command
	if funcName == p.generalCommands.label then
		value = cfg:getLabel(cfg.entityID, cfg.curState.rawValue, cfg.curState.linked, cfg.curState.shortName)
	elseif funcName == p.generalCommands.title then
		cfg.inSitelinks = true

		if cfg.entityID:sub(1,1) == "Q" then
			value = mw.wikibase.getSitelink(cfg.entityID)
		end

		if cfg.curState.linked and value then
			value = buildWikilink(value)
		end
	elseif funcName == p.generalCommands.description then
		value = mw.wikibase.getDescription(cfg.entityID)
	else
		local parsedFormat, formatParams
		local hooks = {count = 0}

		cfg.entity = mw.wikibase.getEntity(cfg.entityID)

		if funcName == p.generalCommands.alias or funcName == p.generalCommands.badge then
			cfg.curState.singleValue = true
		end

		if funcName == p.generalCommands.alias or funcName == p.generalCommands.aliases then
			if not cfg.entity.aliases or not cfg.entity.aliases[cfg.langCode] then
				return ""  -- there is no use to continue without any aliasses
			end

			local aliases = cfg.entity.aliases[cfg.langCode]

			-- parse the desired format, or parse the default aliases format
			if args["format"] then
				parsedFormat, formatParams = parseFormat(args["format"])
			else
				parsedFormat, formatParams = parseFormat(formats.alias)
			end

			-- process overridden separator values;
			-- must come AFTER tweaking the default separators
			cfg:processSeparators(args)

			-- define the hook that should be called (getAlias);
			-- only define the hook if the parameter ("%a") has been given
			if formatParams[parameters.alias] then
				hooks[parameters.alias] = getHookName(parameters.alias, 1)
				hooks.count = hooks.count + 1
			end

			-- set the parsed format and the separators (and optional punctuation mark)
			cfg:setFormatAndSeparators(cfg.curState, parsedFormat)

			-- iterate to collect values
			value = cfg:concatValues(cfg.curState:iterate(aliases, hooks))
		elseif funcName == p.generalCommands.badge or funcName == p.generalCommands.badges then
			if not cfg.entity.sitelinks or not cfg.entity.sitelinks[cfg.siteID] or not cfg.entity.sitelinks[cfg.siteID].badges then
				return ""  -- there is no use to continue without any badges
			end

			local badges = cfg.entity.sitelinks[cfg.siteID].badges

			cfg.inSitelinks = true

			-- parse the desired format, or parse the default aliases format
			if args["format"] then
				parsedFormat, formatParams = parseFormat(args["format"])
			else
				parsedFormat, formatParams = parseFormat(formats.badge)
			end

			-- process overridden separator values;
			-- must come AFTER tweaking the default separators
			cfg:processSeparators(args)

			-- define the hook that should be called (getBadge);
			-- only define the hook if the parameter ("%b") has been given
			if formatParams[parameters.badge] then
				hooks[parameters.badge] = getHookName(parameters.badge, 1)
				hooks.count = hooks.count + 1
			end

			-- set the parsed format and the separators (and optional punctuation mark)
			cfg:setFormatAndSeparators(cfg.curState, parsedFormat)

			-- iterate to collect values
			value = cfg:concatValues(cfg.curState:iterate(badges, hooks))
		end
	end

	value = value or ""

	if cfg.editable and value ~= "" then
		-- if desired, add a clickable icon that may be used to edit the returned value on Wikidata
		value = value .. cfg:getEditIcon()
	end

	return value
end

-- modules that include this module should call the functions with an underscore prepended, e.g.: p._property(args)
local function establishCommands(commandList, commandFunc)
	for _, commandName in pairs(commandList) do
		local function wikitextWrapper(frame)
			local args = copyTable(frame.args)
			args.pointer = 1
			loadI18n(aliasesP, frame)
			return commandFunc(args, commandName)
		end
		p[commandName] = wikitextWrapper

		local function luaWrapper(args)
			args = copyTable(args)
			args.pointer = 1
			loadI18n(aliasesP)
			return commandFunc(args, commandName)
		end
		p["_" .. commandName] = luaWrapper
	end
end

establishCommands(p.claimCommands, claimCommand)
establishCommands(p.generalCommands, generalCommand)

-- main function that is supposed to be used by wrapper templates
function p.main(frame)
	if not mw.wikibase then return nil end

	local f, args

	loadI18n(aliasesP, frame)

	-- get the parent frame to take the arguments that were passed to the wrapper template
	frame = frame:getParent() or frame

	if not frame.args[1] then
		throwError("no-function-specified")
	end

	f = mw.text.trim(frame.args[1])

	if f == "main" then
		throwError("main-called-twice")
	end

	assert(p["_"..f], errorText('no-such-function', f))

	-- copy arguments from immutable to mutable table
	args = copyTable(frame.args)

	-- remove the function name from the list
	table.remove(args, 1)

	return p["_"..f](args)
end

return p