Національний парк Ватнайокутль

Матеріал з Вікіпедії — вільної енциклопедії.
Перейти до навігації Перейти до пошуку
Національний парк Ватнайокутль
An iceberg in Jokulsarlon.jpg
64°30′ пн. ш. 17°00′ зх. д. / 64.500° пн. ш. 17.000° зх. д. / 64.500; -17.000Координати: 64°30′ пн. ш. 17°00′ зх. д. / 64.500° пн. ш. 17.000° зх. д. / 64.500; -17.000
Розташування: South, southeast, east and northeast Iceland
Площа: 13,920 km²
Заснований: 7 June 2008
Веб-сторінка: vatnajokulsthjodgardur.is
Країна Flag of Iceland.svg Ісландія
Об'єкт №: 1604
Дата створення: 7 June 2008
Дата анулювання: 7 June 2008

CMNS: Національний парк Ватнайокутль на Вікісховищі

Національний парк Ватнайокутль один з трьох національних парків в Ісландії. Він повністю включає льодовик Ватнайокутль і великі території навколо. Сюди включені національні парки, які існували тут раніше..

Загалом, національні парки - це території під захистом, які вважаються унікальними в силу своєї природи або культурної спадщини. Унікальні якості Ватнайокутль полягають, в першу чергу, у великій різноманітності ландшафту, який утворився під впливом річок, пакового льоду, а також вулканічної і геотермальної активності.

Історія[ред. | ред. код]

Ватнайекюдль був створений 7 червня 2008 року. При заснуванні площа парку становила 12000 км кв, але з останніми доповненнями Lakagígar, Лаунгісьоур і Krepputunga тепер охоплює 13.920 км 2 або близько 14% від Ісландії, що робить його другим в Європі національним парком за площею після Югид ва в Росії.

Географія та геологія[ред. | ред. код]

Ófærufoss in Eldgjá

Ватнаекуль є в Європі по величині льодовик за межами Арктики, з площею поверхні 8100 км 2 . Зазвичай вимірювання 400-600 м в товщину і по більшій мірі 950 м, льодовиковий лід таїть ряд гір, долин і плато. Він навіть приховує деякі активні центральні вулкани, з яких Бардарбунґа є найбільшим і Грімсвотн найактивнішим. У той час як льодовиковий покрив піднімається на найвищому рівні до понад 2000 м над рівнем моря, льодовик база досягає нижчої точки 300 м нижче рівня моря. Ніде в Ісландії, за винятком Мірдальсйокудль льодовика, не робить більше опадів восени або більше зливу води до моря , ніж на південній стороні Ватнаекуль. Насправді, так багато води в даний час зберігається в Ватнаекуль , що ісландська річка з найбільшим потоком, Ельфюсау , буде потрібно більше 200 років , щоб нести це кількість води в море.

The scenery encircling the glacier is extremely varied. Towards the north, the highland plateau is divided by glacial rivers, with powerful flows in summer. The volcanoes of Askja, Kverkfjöll and Snæfell tower over this region, together with the volcanic table mountain Herðubreið. Long ago, huge glacial floods carved out the canyon of Jökulsárgljúfur in the northern reaches of this plateau. The mighty Dettifoss waterfall still thunders into the upper end of this canyon, while the scenic formations at Hljóðaklettar and the horseshoe-curved cliffs of Ásbyrgi are found farther north.

Öræfajökull and Hvannadalshnjúkur as seen from Skaftafell

Broad wetlands and expansive ranges distinguish the areas near the glacier and farther east, around Snæfell. These areas are an important habitat for reindeer and pink-footed geese.

The south side of Vatnajökull is characterised by many high, majestic mountain ridges, with outlet glaciers descending between them onto the lowlands. The southernmost part of the glacier envelops the central volcano Öræfajökull and Iceland's highest peak, Hvannadalshnjúkur. Sheltered by the high ice, the vegetated oasis of Skaftafell overlooks the black sands deposited to its west by the river Skeiðará. These sands are mostly composed of ash which stems from the frequent eruptions at Grímsvötn and is brought to the coast by jökulhlaups, or glacial floods.

Substantial volcanic activity also characterises the landscape west of Vatnajökull, where two of the world's greatest fissure and lava eruptions of historical times occurred, at Eldgjá in 934 and Lakagígar 1783-1784. Vonarskarð, northwest of the glacier, is a colourful high-temperature area and a watershed between North and South Iceland.

Клімат[ред. | ред. код]

Nýidalur is located near the center of Iceland, on mountain track F26. Snowfall can be expected there any time of the year, so travelers must be well prepared and check the weather forecast before driving up there.

The weather can vary considerably in an area as extensive as that covered by the National Park with its wide range of elevations.

Precipitation in low-lying areas south of the Vatnajökull ice cap is considerable, ranging from 1,000 mm a year to 3,000 mm per year. Temperatures range between 10°C and 20°C in summer, while winters are rather mild (the thermometer rarely falls below -10°C and the temperature is often well above freezing point).

In the mountains and on the ice cap itself, annual precipitation can reach to between 4,000 and 5,000 mm, for the most part in the form of snow. The depth of snow on Öræfajökull after a high-precipitation winter is between 10 and 15 m. Some of the snow will melt, while the rest forms glacial ice. This process happens everywhere above the snowline on the Vatnajökull ice cap.

Temperatures on the southern part of the ice cap are almost always below zero in winter and can reach -20°C or -30°C. High winds and storms are common, and therefor wind-chill has to be taken into account as the wind can have a substantial effect on outdoor comfort, even when the ambient temperature is relatively high.

Further north beyond the ice cap, annual precipitation decreases. North-east of the ice cap it drops to between 350 and 450 mm per year, the lowest in Iceland. Precipitation increases closer to the north coast and in parts of the highlands such as at Askja. Temperatures can fall quite low in clear and calm weather during winter.

Southerly winds generally mean little or no precipitation in the north, along with higher temperatures. Northerly winds bring clouds, with cool and possibly wet weather in the north of the country, while the south is brighter and milder. The same applies to westerly or south westerly winds, which bring warmer weather in the east. The reverse is true of easterly winds, which bring coolness and precipitation in the east and dry, better weather in the west of Iceland. This is the result of the phenomenon of foehn wind. Humid, rather cool air rises as it nears the highlands; condensation then falls in the highlands as rain while warmer, drier air flows down to lower ground on the other side. The difference in temperature can be 10°C or greater.

Послуги[ред. | ред. код]

The campsite in Ásbyrgi. Vatnajökull National Park's visitor centre, Gljúfrastofa, can be seen further away.

Vatnajökull National Park is divided into four territories, each of them locally managed.

The Northern Territory consists of north-western Vatnajökull, Askja caldera and its surroundings, Jökulsárgljúfur canyon and some of Jökulsá á Fjöllum riverbed. A visitor centre and a campsite are located in Ásbyrgi, along with a campsite in Vesturdalur.

The Eastern Territory includes Kverkfjöll mountains and north-eastern Vatnajökull, as well as the expanses of Snæfellsöræfi. A visitor centre is located at Skriðuklaustur.

The Southern Territory extends throughout the south-eastern part of Vatnajökull, or from Lómagnúpur mountain in the west to Lón and Lónsöræfi in the east. A visitor centre and a campsite are located in Skaftafell. Information centres in co-operation with the national park are run in Höfn, Hoffell, Hólmur and Skálafell.

Snæfellstofa is Vatnajökull National Park's most recent visitor centre.

The Western Territory extends over the south-western part of Vatnajökull and a large area outside the glacier, including Lakagígar craters and Langisjór. An information centre is located in Kirkjubæjarklaustur, jointly run by the national park and the local community.

The visitor centre in Skaftafell is open all year round. The visitor centres in Ásbyrgi and Skriðuklaustur are open from the beginning of May throughout September, but can be opened during winter on appointment. Most of the national park's highland area is however inaccessible during the winter.

National park rangers conduct patrols and provide educational services in the park's highland areas. The opening times of the stations vary from area to area, with the first rangers arriving when the relevant highland roads are opened, soon after the middle of June, and the last rangers leaving at the end of September.

During the summer, national park rangers offer short walks with an emphasis on nature interpretation. From mid-June to mid-August, rangers guide daily interpretive walks at Ásbyrgi and Skaftafell. In the highlands, most ranger stations offer daily interpretive walks from early July until mid-August.

Vatnajökull National Park, 2014

Дивіться також[ред. | ред. код]

Посилання[ред. | ред. код]

Зовнішні посилання[ред. | ред. код]

Шаблон:Національні парки Ісландії