X-SAMPA

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Розширений фонетичний алфавіт SAM (Extended SAM Phonetic Alphabet) — варіант SAMPA, розроблений у 1995 році, професором фонетики . Він був сформований для уніфікації SAMPA алфавітів окремих мов й роширити SAMPA таким чином, що включити в нього увесь набір символів міжнародного фонетичного алфавіту.

В резутаті утворилася система відображення міжнародного фонетичного алфавіту за допомогою семибітових кодів ASCII.

Коротко[ред.ред. код]

Примітки[ред.ред. код]

  • Ті символи МФА, які зображаються звичайними малими буквами латинського алфавіту зберегли свої значення в X-SAMPA.
  • X-SAMPA використовує обернений слеш (\) для створення нових символів. Наприклад, звук O відрізняється від O\

настільки, що не має з ним нічого спільного.

  • X-SAMPA diacritics follow the symbols they modify. Except for ~ for nasalization, = for syllabicity, and ` for retroflexion and rhotacization, diacritics are joined to the character with the underscore character _.
  • The underscore character is also used to encode the IPA tiebar.
  • The numbers _1 to _6 are reserved diacritics as shorthand for language-specific tone numbers.

Малі літери[ред.ред. код]

X-SAMPA IPA IPA Опис Приклад
a a Xsampa-a.png неогублений голосний переднього ряду низького піднесення French dame [dam], Spanish padre [«paD4e]
b b Xsampa-b.png voiced bilabial plosive English bed [bEd], French bon [bO~]
b_< ɓ Xsampa-b lessthan.png voiced bilabial implosive Sindhi ɓarʊ [b_<arU]
c c Xsampa-c.png voiceless palatal plosive Hungarian latyak [»lAcAk]
d d Xsampa-d.png voiced alveolar plosive English dig [dIg], French doigt [dwa]
d` ɖ Xsampa-d'.png voiced retroflex plosive Swedish hord [hu:d`]
d_< ɗ Xsampa-d lessthan.png voiced alveolar implosive Sindhi ɗarʊ [d_<arU]
e e Xsampa-e.png close-mid front unrounded vowel French ses [se]
f f Xsampa-f2.png voiceless labiodental fricative English five [faIv], French femme [fam]
g ɡ Xsampa-g.png voiced velar plosive English game [geIm], French longue [lO~g]
g_< ɠ Xsampa-g lessthan.png voiced velar implosive Sindhi ɠəro [g_<@ro]
h h Xsampa-h.png voiceless glottal fricative English house [haUs]
h\ ɦ Xsampa-hslash.png voiced glottal fricative Czech hrad [h\rat]
i i Xsampa-i.png неогублений голосний переднього ряду високого піднесення English be [bi:], French oui [wi], Spanish si [si]
j j Xsampa-j2.png palatal approximant English yes [jEs], French yeux [j2]
j\ ʝ Xsampa-jslash2.png voiced palatal fricative Greek γειά [j\a]
k k Xsampa-k.png voiceless velar plosive English scat [sk{t], Spanish carro [«kar:o]
l l Xsampa-l.png alveolar lateral approximant English lay [leI], French mal [mal]
l` ɭ Xsampa-l'.png retroflex lateral approximant Svealand Swedish sorl [so:l`]
l\ ɺ Xsampa-lslash.png alveolar lateral flap Japanese phoneme /r/
m m Xsampa-m.png bilabial nasal English mouse [maUs], French homme [Om]
n n Xsampa-n.png alveolar nasal English nap [n{p], French non [nO~]
n` ɳ Xsampa-n'.png retroflex nasal Swedish hörn [h2:n`]
o o Xsampa-o.png close-mid back rounded vowel French gros [gRo]
p p Xsampa-p.png voiceless bilabial plosive English speak [spik], French pose [poz], Spanish perro [»per:o]
p\ ɸ Xsampa-pslash.png voiceless bilabial fricative Japanese fuku [p\M_0kM]
q q Xsampa-q.png voiceless uvular plosive Arabic qasbah [«qQs_Gba]
r r Xsampa-r.png alveolar trill Spanish perro [»per:o]
r` ɽ Xsampa-r'.png retroflex flap  
r\ ɹ Xsampa-rslash2.png alveolar approximant English red [r\Ed]
r\` ɻ Xsampa-rslash'.png retroflex approximant Malayalam വഴി [«v6r\`i]
s s Xsampa-s.png voiceless alveolar fricative English seem [si:m], French session [se»sjO~]
s` ʂ Xsampa-s'.png voiceless retroflex fricative Swedish mars [mas`]
s\ ɕ Xsampa-sslash.png voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative Polish świerszcz [s\v'erStS]
t t Xsampa-t.png voiceless alveolar plosive English stew [stju:], French raté [Ra"te], Spanish tuyo [«tujo]
t` ʈ Xsampa-t'.png voiceless retroflex plosive Swedish mört [m2t`]
u u Xsampa-u.png close back rounded vowel English boom [bu:m], Spanish su [su]
v v Xsampa-v.png voiced labiodental fricative English vest [vEst], French voix [vwa]
v\ (or P) ʋ Xsampa-Porvslash.png labiodental approximant Dutch west [v\Est]/[PEst]
w w Xsampa-w2.png labial-velar approximant English west [wEst], French oui [wi]
x x Xsampa-x.png voiceless velar fricative Scots loch [lQx]
x\ ɧ Xsampa-xslash2.png voiceless palatal-velar fricative Swedish sjal [x\A:l]
y y Xsampa-y.png close front rounded vowel French tu [ty] German über [»y:b6]
z z Xsampa-z.png voiced alveolar fricative English zoo [zu:], French azote [a"zOt]
z` ʐ Xsampa-z'.png voiced retroflex fricative Mandarin Chinese rang [z`aN]
z\ ʑ Xsampa-zslash.png voiced alveolo-palatal fricative Polish źrebak [«z\rEbak]

Великі літери[ред.ред. код]

XS IPA IPA Опис Приклад
A ɑ Xsampa-A2.png open back unrounded vowel English father [»fA:D@(r\)] (RP and Gen.Am.)
B β Xsampa-B2.png voiced bilabial fricative Spanish lavar [la"Ba4]
B\ ʙ Xsampa-Bslash.png bilabial trill Reminiscent of shivering («brrr»)
C ç Xsampa-C2.png voiceless palatal fricative German ich [IC], English human [«Cjum@n] (broad transcription uses [hj-])
D ð Xsampa-D2.png voiced dental fricative English then [DEn]
E ɛ Xsampa-E2.png open-mid front unrounded vowel French même [mEm], English met [mEt]
F ɱ Xsampa-F.png labiodental nasal English emphasis [»EFf@sIs] (spoken quickly, otherwise uses [Emf-])
G ɣ Xsampa-G2.png voiced velar fricative Greek γωνία [Go"nia], Danish vælge [«vElG@]
G\ ɢ Xsampa-Gslash.png voiced uvular plosive Inuktitut nirivvik [niG\ivvik]
G\_< ʛ Xsampa-Gslash lessthan.png voiced uvular implosive Mam ʛa [G\_<a]
H ɥ Xsampa-H.png labial-palatal approximant French huit [Hi]
H\ ʜ Xsampa-Hslash.png voiceless epiglottal fricative  
I ɪ Xsampa-I2.png near-close near-front unrounded vowel English kit [kIt]
I\ Ɨ Xsampa-Islash.png central lax close unrounded vowel, not in IPA Polish ryba [rI\bA] 
J ɲ Xsampa-J.png palatal nasal Spanish año [»aJo], English canyon [«k{J@n] (broad transcription uses [-nj-])
J\ ɟ Xsampa-Jslash.png voiced palatal plosive Hungarian egy [EJ\]
J\_< ʄ Xsampa-Jslash lessthan.png voiced palatal implosive Sindhi ʄaro [J\_<aro]
K ɬ Xsampa-K2.png voiceless alveolar lateral fricative Welsh llaw [KaU]
K\ ɮ Xsampa-Kslash.png voiced alveolar lateral fricative  
L ʎ Xsampa-L2.png palatal lateral approximant Italian famiglia [fa»miLa], Castilian llamar [La"mar], English million [«mIL@n] (broad transcription uses [-lj-])
L\ ʟ Xsampa-Lslash.png velar lateral approximant
M ɯ Xsampa-M.png close back unrounded vowel Korean (eu)
M\ ɰ Xsampa-Mslash.png velar approximant Spanish fuego [»fweM\o]
N ŋ Xsampa-N2.png velar nasal English thing [TIN]
N\ ɴ Xsampa-Nslash.png uvular nasal Japanese san [saN\]
O ɔ Xsampa-O2.png open-mid back rounded vowel British English thought [TO:t], American English off [O:f]
O\ ʘ Xsampa-Oslash.png bilabial click  
P (or v\) ʋ Xsampa-Porvslash.png labiodental approximant Dutch west [PEst]/[v\Est], allophone of English phoneme /r\/
Q ɒ Xsampa-Q.png open back rounded vowel British English lot [lQt]
R ʁ Xsampa-R2.png voiced uvular fricative French roi [Rwa]
R\ ʀ Xsampa-Rslash.png uvular trill German phoneme /r/
S ʃ Xsampa-S2.png voiceless postalveolar fricative English ship [SIp]
T θ Xsampa-T2.png voiceless dental fricative English thin [TIn]
U ʊ Xsampa-U2.png near-close near-back rounded vowel English foot [fUt]
U\ ʊ̵ Xsampa-Uslash.png central lax close rounded vowel, not in IPA  
V ʌ Xsampa-V.png open-mid back unrounded vowel RP English strut [str\Vt]
W ʍ Xsampa-X.png voiceless labial-velar fricative Scots when [WEn]
X χ Xsampa-x2.png voiceless uvular fricative Klallam sχaʔqʷaʔ [sXa?q_wa?]
X\ ħ Xsampa-Xslash.png voiceless pharyngeal fricative Arabic <ح>ha’ [X\A:]
Y ʏ Xsampa-Y2.png near-close near-front rounded vowel German hübsch [hYpS]
Z ʒ Xsampa-Z2.png voiced postalveolar fricative English vision [«vIZ@n]

Інші символи[ред.ред. код]

XS IPA IPA Опис Приклад
. . Xsampa-fullstop.png syllable break  
» ˈ Xsampa-doublequotes.png primary stress  
% ˌ Xsampa-percentage.png secondary stress  
' (or _j) ʲ Xsampa-'or j.png palatalized  
: ː Xsampa-colon.png long  
:\ ˑ Xsampa-colonslash.png half long Estonian differentiates three vowel lengths
-     separator  
@ ə Xsampa-at.png schwa English arena [@"r\i:n@]
@\ ɘ Xsampa-atslash.png close-mid central unrounded vowel Paicĩ kɘ̄ɾɘ [k@\_M4@\_M]
{ æ Xsampa-leftcurly.png near-open front unrounded vowel English trap [tr\{p]
} ʉ Xsampa-rightcurly.png close central rounded vowel Swedish sju [x\}:]; AuE/NZE boot [b}:t]
1 ɨ Xsampa-1.png close central unrounded vowel Welsh tu [t1], American English rose's [«r\oUz1z]
2 ø Xsampa-2.png close-mid front rounded vowel Danish købe [»k2:b@], French deux [d2]
3 ɜ Xsampa-3.png open-mid central unrounded vowel English nurse [n3:s] (RP) or [n3`s] (Gen.Am.)
3\ ɞ Xsampa-3slash.png open-mid central rounded vowel Irish tomhail[t3\:l']
4 ɾ Xsampa-4.png alveolar flap Spanish pero [«pe4o], American English better [»bE4@`]
5 ɫ Xsampa-l eor5.png velarized alveolar lateral approximant; also see _e English milk [mI5k]
6 ɐ Xsampa-6.png near-open central vowel German besser [«bEs6], Australian English mud [m6d]
7 ɤ Xsampa-7.png close-mid back unrounded vowel Estonian kõik [k7ik], Occurs in Vietnamese
8 ɵ Xsampa-8.png close-mid central rounded vowel Swedish buss [b8s]
9 œ Xsampa-9.png open-mid front rounded vowel French neuf [n9f], Danish drømme [dR9m@]
& ɶ Xsampa-amper.png open front rounded vowel
? ʔ Xsampa-questionmark.png glottal stop Danish stød [sd2?], Cockney English bottle [»bQ?l]
?\ ʕ Xsampa-qmarkslash.png voiced pharyngeal fricative Arabic ع‎ (`ayn) [?\Ajn]
*     undefined escape character, SAMPA's «conjunctor»  
/     indeterminacy in French vowels  
<     begin nonsegmental notation (e.g., SAMPROSA)  
<\ ʢ Xsampa-lessthanslash.png voiced epiglottal fricative  
>     end nonsegmental notation  
>\ ʡ Xsampa-greaterthanslash.png epiglottal plosive  
^ Xsampa-hat.png upstep  
! Xsampa-exclamation.png downstep  
!\ ǃ Xsampa-exclamationslash.png postalveolar click  
|   Xsampa-bar.png minor (foot) group  
|\ ǀ Xsampa-barslash.png dental click  
||   Xsampa-doublebar.png major (intonation) group  
|\|\ ǁ Xsampa-doublebarslash.png lateral alveolar click  
=\ ǂ Xsampa-equalsslash.png palatal click  
-\ ̮ Xsampa-dashslash.png linking mark  

Діакритичні знаки[ред.ред. код]

XS IPA IPA Опис
_"   ̈ Xsampa- doublequotes.png centralized
_+   ̟ Xsampa- plus.png advanced
_-   ̠ Xsampa- minus.png retracted
_/ ˇ   rising tone
_0   ̥ Xsampa- 0.png voiceless
_<     implosive (IPA uses separate symbols for implosives)
= (or _=)   ̩ Xsampa-equalsor equals.png syllabic
_> ʼ Xsampa- greaterthan.png ejective
_?\ ˤ Xsampa- questionslash.png pharyngealized
_\ ˆ   falling tone
_^   ̯ Xsampa- hat.png non-syllabic
_}   ̚ Xsampa- rightcurly.png no audible release
` ˞ Xsampa-'rhino.png rhotacization in vowels, retroflexion in consonants (IPA uses separate symbols for consonants, see t` for an example)
~ (or _~)   ̃ Xsampa-tildor tild.png nasalization
_A   ̘ Xsampa- A.png advanced tongue root
_a   ̺ Xsampa- a2.png apical
_B   ̏ Xsampa- B.png extra low tone
_B_L   Xsampa- B L.png low rising tone
_c   ̜ Xsampa- c.png less rounded
_d   ̪ Xsampa- d.png dental
_e   ̴ Xsampa- e.png velarized or pharyngealized; also see 5
<F>   Xsampa-ltFgt.png global fall
_F   ̂ Xsampa- F.png falling tone
_G ˠ Xsampa- G.png velarized
_H   ́ Xsampa- H.png high tone
_H_T   Xsampa- H T.png high rising tone
_h ʰ Xsampa- h.png aspirated
_j (or ') ʲ Xsampa-'or j.png palatalized
_k   ̰ Xsampa- k.png creaky voice
_L   ̀ Xsampa- L.png low tone
_l ˡ Xsampa- l.png lateral release
_M   ̄ Xsampa- M.png mid tone
_m   ̻ Xsampa- m.png laminal
_N   ̼ Xsampa- N.png linguolabial
_n Xsampa- n2.png nasal release
_O   ̹ Xsampa O.png more rounded
_o   ̞ Xsampa- o.png lowered
_q   ̙ Xsampa- q.png retracted tongue root
<R>   Xsampa-ltRgt.png global rise
_R   ̌ Xsampa- R.png rising tone
_R_F   Xsampa- R F.png rising falling tone
_r   ̝ Xsampa- r.png raised
_T   ̋ Xsampa- T.png extra high tone
_t   ̤ Xsampa- t.png breathy voice
_v   ̬ Xsampa- v.png voiced
_w ʷ Xsampa- w.png labialized
_X   ̆ Xsampa- X.png extra-short
_x   ̽ Xsampa- x.png mid-centralized

Також дивіться[ред.ред. код]

  • (IPA)
  • * , a language-specific predecessor of X-SAMPA.
  • , an unofficial, extended version of X-SAMPA used for * * , a similar system.

Посилання[ред.ред. код]


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